By John W. Evans PhD (auth.), Werner Engelmaier Dipl.-Ing. (eds.)
While tin/lead solders have ruled the electronics for a few years, environmental concerns and new laws are forcing swap. subsidized by way of greater than ten years of analysis in Pb-free solders, many electronics brands are poised for conversion.
A advisor to Lead-free Solders is meant as a device to assist because it strikes right into a new period within the creation and use of solders. an outline of the rules of soldering know-how is supplied starting with the idea underlying every one suggestion. concentrating on the main up to date tools for trying out and characterization, those theories are then bolstered by way of experimental examples and commercial applications.
• Addresses key matters in meeting from a fabrics aspect of view.
• provides the reader handy entry to information crucial for the correct assessment and employment of state-of-the-art ternary Sn/Ag/X solders
• permits comparability of the functionality of Pb-free solders with that of normal eutectic SnPb.
Although basically of curiosity to expert layout and reliability engineers operating in electronics meeting and production, A consultant to Lead-free Solders may also be precious for graduate scholars trying to observe services in fabrics, mechanical or digital engineering during this undefined. Researchers in electronics and fabrics will locate the most recent study at their fingertips including the most probably instructions will want from such study within the future.
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Additional resources for A Guide to Lead-free Solders: Physical Metallurgy and Reliability
Evans, J. , Evans, J. , Hull, S. , (1993), “The Effects of Cerium and Silver Alloying on Microstructure and Fatigue in Near-Eutectic Solders”, International Journal of Microcircuits and Electronic Packaging, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 363372. Frear, D. , Jones W. , and Kinsman, K. , (1991), Solder Mechanics: A State of the Art Assessment, The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, EMPMD Monograph, pp 155189. Fuchs, H. O. and Stephens, R. , (1980), Metal Fatigue in Engineering, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp.
MacDowell, A. , Bong, Y. , Sheng, G. , (2002), Structure and Kinetics of Sn Whisker Growth on Pb-Free Solder Finish, 2002. , (2002) Relay Failure Caused by Tin Whiskers, 2002. , (1989) “Reflow Soldering Survey”, Circuits Manufacturing, p. 42, 1989. Dubravka Rocak, Vinko Stopar, and Janeta Fajfar Plut, (1995), “Solder Paste for Fine Line Printing in Hybrid Microelectronics”, J. of Microelectronics, 26, 1995, pp. , (1987) Process Optimization of Solder Creams, unpublished monograph, 1987. Evans, J.
5 Wave Soldering Wave soldering is used to create joints for through-hole configurations as well as to solder chip components. 12, has been in wide use for many years with near-eutectic SnPb due to its cost advantages and high throughput for high-volume products. Preheating, wave temperature and wave exposure time are among the most important parameters. In addition, board attack angle, wave height and shape, wave oil content and the ambient atmosphere influence the defect content and throughput depending upon the alloy used.