By Martin Maiden, Cecilia Robustelli
This Italian reference grammar offers scholars, lecturers and others drawn to the Italian language with a entire, available and jargon-free consultant to the kinds and constitution of Italian.
Whatever their point of data of the language, newcomers of Italian will locate this booklet crucial: it supplies transparent and exact reasons of every thing from the main user-friendly evidence similar to the relation among spelling and pronunciation, or the different types of the thing, to extra complicated issues resembling a few of the nuances of the subjunctive. Formal or archaic discourse is extraordinary from casual, daily utilization, and regionalisms also are indicated the place applicable.
The authors have taken care to make it a simple and illuminating reference device: large cross-referencing allows readers to quick locate the knowledge they require, and likewise stimulates them to find new, comparable proof.
Read or Download A Reference Grammar of Modern Italian (2nd Edition) PDF
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Extra info for A Reference Grammar of Modern Italian (2nd Edition)
Kilo’ ‘tired’ (pl. of stanco) ‘I’ll ﬁsh’ (future of pescare) ‘joke’ ‘whitish’ (from bianco) ‘dormouse’ ‘you pay’ (2sg. of pagare) ‘I’ll pay’ (future of pagare) ‘sneer’ ‘little lake’ (from lago) The letter h has three other uses: it is written (but not pronounced) in the singular and third person plural present indicative of avere: ho, hai, ha, hanno, and thereby serves to distinguish these words from o ‘or’, ai ‘to the’, a ‘to’, anno ‘year’. It appears in certain exclamations, such as ehi! , where the h corresponds to a frequently audible glottal catch or a slight aspiration (approximately [mɑʔ] to express surprise, and [mah] or [ma ] for casual indifference), also boh!
It is perfectly possible, however, for tense-forms to indicate times other than those suggested by their grammatical label. So ‘present tense’ dico in Te lo dico domani ‘I’ll tell you tomorrow’ actually refers to future time. , cantare ‘to sing’, rimanere ‘to remain’, dormire ‘to sleep’, invecchiare ‘to grow old’), with forms indicating tense, person and so forth. , in the inﬁnitive form, ending in -re. Verb phrase (sintagma verbale) – See ‘Phrase’ Vowel (vocale) – A vowel is a sound produced with minimal constriction of the airﬂow during speech.
The things that you are doing’ ‘next Monday’ Consonant lengthening 11 colibrì blu [koli bri b blu] già preparato [ a pprepa rato] oblò chiuso [o blɔ k kjuso] Parlò forte. [par lɔ f fɔrte] caffè turco [kaf fε t turko] virtù naturale [vir tu nnatu rale] gnu selvatico [ u ssel vatiko] più grosso [ pju rɔsso] qui sotto [ kwi s sotto] scià morto [ ʃa m mɔrto] tre giorni [ tre d orni] Va bene. [ va b bεne] Ho fame. [ ɔ f fame] È vero. , è troppo [ ε t trɔppo] ‘it’s too much’, è ﬂuido [ ε f fluido] ‘it’s ﬂuid’).