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By Martin Glassner

This examine is an outgrowth of an curiosity within the query of entry to the ocean built by means of the writer in the course of a ten-month sojourn in the course of 1962 and 1963 as American Vice Consul in Antofagasta, Chile. in this interval he had the chance to go to Peru 3 times and Bolivia two times. This event, supplemented via learn in lots of libraries in ny, Washington and California and via interviews, files and different reference fabrics, led to an in depth research of Bolivia's crusade for an outlet to the ocean. 1 the current examine has drawn a few fabric from the sooner one, yet is such an complicated enlargement of it that it will probably good be thought of a unconditionally new attempt. the trouble used to be made as the challenge of entry to the ocean has develop into extra severe because the moment global struggle because the emphasis on exchange and monetary improvement has grown whereas even as many new land-locked states have been being born. There have, furthermore, been extra threatened and genuine interferences with unfastened transit in this interval than in the course of the previous part century and extra. an intensive exam of the topic appeared so as, then, as an relief to an figuring out of the issues concerned and as a advisor to destiny makes an attempt to solve them. as well as a normal survey of the query, 3 case reviews were integrated either as illustrations of a lot of those difficulties and as particular events through which to check proposed solutions.

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Some three-quarters of the national income is derived from agriculture, and only after unusually poor harvests is it necessary to import food. Figures on the amount of cultivated land vary considerably, but it probably does not exceed ten percent of the total area of the country, and much of this is irrigated. About half of the total cropland is devoted to low-yielding wheat fields, with cotton as the second crop. Both cotton and sugar beets have grown greatly in importance in the last two decades.

In some respects, particularly in regard to provisions for settlement of disputes, GATT was less extensive and less emphatic than the Barcelona Convention. It amounted, in fact, to little more than a reaffirmation of the general principle of freedom of transit and made some recommendations which applied only to the contracting parties. Simultaneously with GATT, however, the Geneva Conference prepared a draft Charter of World Trade for submission to a plenipotentiary conference which was to take place shortly in Havana.

Nevertheless, few of these arrangements concerned land-locked sattes and none was based on mutual acceptance of an inherent right (under natural law or any other regime) of a land-locked state to access to the sea. The Barcelona Conference, then, adopted the Convention and Statute on Freedom of Transit, commonly known as the Barcelona Convention. 8 A good theoretical and historical discussion of corridors and transit may be found in Osborne Mance, Frontiers, Peace Treaties, and International Organization (London: Oxford University Press, 1946), pp.

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