By Shirley A. Hill
In the context of transforming into variety, Shirley A. Hill examines the paintings mom and dad do in elevating their kids. according to interviews and survey info, African American Children comprises blacks of assorted social sessions in addition to a comparative pattern of whites. It covers significant parts of kid socialization: instructing values, self-discipline recommendations, gender socialization, racial socialization, prolonged households -- exhibiting how either race and sophistication make a distinction, and emphasizing styles that problem present examine that perspectives black households as a monolithic staff.
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Extra info for African American Children: Socialization and Development in Families
Parental absence in black families rose from about 3 2 % in 1 9 6 0 (Ruggles, 1 9 9 4 ) t o 6 1 % (Billingsley, 1 9 9 2 ) , with fathers much more likely to be absent than mothers. At the same time, many o f the resources traditionally available t o black families, such as extended kin networks (Roschelle, 1 9 9 7 ) , have diminished in recent decades. Despite these recent changes in the black families, having and raising children continue to be important activities. Children make up a substantial portion o f the 3 0 - 3 5 million black people living in the United States in 1 9 9 2 ; m o r e than one-third are under age 1 8 (Pinkney, 1 9 9 3 ) .
In all probability, there was great variability among the living arrangements o f slaves based on historical period, geographic area, and labor demands. For example, early slaves were primarily young and male (Kitano, 1 9 9 1 ) , and their youth and lack o f female partners probably diminished their opportunity to engage in African cultural or family practices. It was not until 1 8 4 0 , a few years before the end o f slavery, that the s e x ratio between males and females was relatively equal.
Little has been written explicitly about child rearing during slavery, but available evidence suggests that black parents, within the boundaries and limitations o f the system imposed upon them, attempted t o nurture and train their children. N e x t , I review studies that began to emerge in the 1 9 0 0 s on the importance o f social class in shaping child-rearing work. After slavery had ended, many blacks, especially those in the South, still endured a racial caste system that made family life difficult.