By Kees Koonings, Dirk Kruijt
This quantity explores contemporary proof of the way partial nation failure in Latin the United States interacts with new sorts of equipped violence, undermining the democratic consolidations of the earlier twenty years. This "new violence" stems from various social actors: drug mafias, peasant militias and concrete gangs, the so-called actores armadas, and contain state-related actors just like the police, army intelligence organizations and paramilitary forces. the consequences comprise either "governance voids"--domains the place the valid country is successfully absent--and the erosion of the means and willingness of nation officers to abide via the guideline of legislations themselves. those developments, in flip, threaten the opportunity of a re-installation of authoritarian regimes lower than the keep an eye on of political armies or, at the least, the unfold of nation violence in a single shape or one other. This e-book sees hyperlinks among this cave in of governance and the weakening of country constructions undertaken within the identify of neoliberal financial reforms.
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Extra info for Armed Actors: Organised Violence and State Failure in Latin America
Although a democratic government was installed in Guatemala in 1986, it was only in 1996 that the system of state terror was ended.
The Castaño clan ﬁrst gained national notoriety through their involvement in the Los Pepes death squad set up to counter the rampant violence of the Medellín cartel led by Pablo Escobar (Bowden 2001). After the death of Escobar in December 1993 (followed shortly thereafter by the death of Fidel Castaño in a confrontation with the ELP; see Romero 2003: 26) and 28 the effective end of intra-cartel warfare, the defeat of the leftist guerrillas in the country became the key focus of the paramilitary, through the expansion of territorial control and the use of indiscriminate violence and terror against the civilian population.
This set of connections can be represented as a pattern. A third element in the description of illegal extensions is the process of exchange between the extensions and the other groups in the pattern; what is exchanged for what? 1 In this chapter, I ﬁrst present some preliminary insights regarding the differences between patterns of extension in Latin America and those in other regions of the world. I will then discuss the extensions present in two Latin American countries to illustrate the differences within the continent: one rather simple form from Brazil, and one complex pattern from Guatemala.