By Richard F. Groeneveld
Groeneveld stories the conceptual and primary facets of organizational impact over police discretion in box arrests. He reveals that street-level discretion by way of box officer
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Additional info for Arrest Discretion of Police Officers: The Impact of Varying Organizational Structures (Criminal Justice: Recent Scholarship)
The police were often accused of enforcement that was prejudicial to the Hispanic men. The 1960s brought the "Civil Rights Movement" into American consciousness, and was anything but boring for law enforcement. Protest marches, sit-ins, and demonstrations, particularly in the South, brought National Guard troops out as well as police dogs and horses to attack passive, mostly Black Americans expressing their constitutional rights. As free speech was taken to another level at Berkeley in 1964, America watched as students crusaded while yelling four letter words.
The precision of the boundaries definition is dependent on the policy in question, the complexity of the behavioral and structural-legal situation, and the sophistication of the research methods. The issues of boundaries, role sets, organizational factors, and legal parameters can make for an extraordinarily complex scheme. Munro states that there is a way to work through the confusion in what von Bertalanffy (1968) calls “the establishment of leading parts, that is, components dominating the behavior of the system” (p.
However, policy research in law enforcement has traditionally taken a mechanistic approach focusing on the law, structure, and the institution. The behavior of the human actors is what can be categorized as the missing element from many of these studies. Laws neither make nor enforce themselves, and legal research has a tendency to camouflage and obscure the behavior of the actors in the system. Systems theory may still be evolving, but as pointed out by Kast and Rosensweig (1972), it “provides a relief from the limitations of more mechanistic approaches and a rationale for rejecting principles based on relatively closed-system thinking” (p.