By Nader Hassanzadeh
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Extra info for Bacteria Genetics
Examples include actin, GAPDH and ubiquitin. 3. A facultative gene is a gene which is only transcribed when needed compared to a constitutive gene. 4. An inducible gene is a gene whose expression is either responsive to environmental change or dependent on the position of the cell cycle. 64 1.
There are other plasmids that can take advantage of conjugation but don’t encode the the necessary genes. These are non-self transmissible plasmids. R plasmids are named not for their mode of transmission but instead for the resistance genes that they encode such as to antibiotics. ) Plasmids, R and otherwise, can have very wide host ranges allowing easy transfer of already evolved genes between bacterial species. 30 Plasmids in a bacterial host cell Cell may contain no plasmids, one plasmid or many copies of a plasmid.
Flanked by inverted repeat (IR) regions. Previously known as R factors confer resistance to antibiotics they can also code for toxins. 46 Transposons Jumping genes or mobile genetic elements Transposons are also called jumping genes or mobile genetic elements. Transposons are genes (sequences of DNA) that can move around to different positions within the genome of a single cell, a process called transposition. In the process, they can cause mutations and change the amount of DNA in the genome.