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By Nader Hassanzadeh

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Examples include actin, GAPDH and ubiquitin. 3. A facultative gene is a gene which is only transcribed when needed compared to a constitutive gene. 4. An inducible gene is a gene whose expression is either responsive to environmental change or dependent on the position of the cell cycle. 64  1.

There are other plasmids that can take advantage of conjugation but don’t encode the the necessary genes. These are non-self transmissible plasmids. R plasmids are named not for their mode of transmission but instead for the resistance genes that they encode such as to antibiotics. ) Plasmids, R and otherwise, can have very wide host ranges allowing easy transfer of already evolved genes between bacterial species. 30 Plasmids in a bacterial host cell   Cell may contain no plasmids, one plasmid or many copies of a plasmid.

Flanked by inverted repeat (IR) regions. Previously known as R factors confer resistance to antibiotics they can also code for toxins. 46 Transposons Jumping genes or mobile genetic elements    Transposons are also called jumping genes or mobile genetic elements. Transposons are genes (sequences of DNA) that can move around to different positions within the genome of a single cell, a process called transposition. In the process, they can cause mutations and change the amount of DNA in the genome.

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