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By John D. Roberts

No interval within the heritage of natural chemistry has been as dynamic and effective of study accomplishment because the twelve years among the of entirety of the 1st and current versions of this textbook. New reagents, new reactions, and amazing syntheses were manifold. New suggestions and new tools for research and resolution of constructions, greater tools for theoretical calculations, in addition to new junctures with actual, inorganic, and biochemistry, have made natural chemistry an vastly very important self-discipline.

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Draw structural formulas for other compounds having the composition C,H,O that possess a. an aldehyde function. c. an alcohol function and a double bond. b. an ether function in a ring. d. an alcohol function and a ring. 39 40 2 Structural Organic Chemistry The Shapes of Molecules Functronal Groups 2-3A How Are Functional-Group Classifications Useful? 2-3A How Are Functional-Group Classifications Useful? One of the main reasons for classifying compounds by their functional groups is that it also classifies their chemical behavior.

CH3 I I CHS-C-CH3 H CH3 f. \>' \c/ \c/ CH CH, H H / \C/ \H H H/ \H 1-14 There are two isomers of C3H6 with normal carbon and hydrogen valences. Each adds bromine-one rapidly and the other very sluggishly -to give different isomers of C3H6Br,. The C3H,Br2 derived from the C3H6isomer that reacts sluggishly with bromine can give just two different C3H,Br3 isomers on further bromine substitution, whereas the other C3H6Br2compound can give three different C3H,Br3 isomers on further substitution. What are the structures of the C3H6isomers and their C3H6Br, addition products?

For instance, cyclopentane, C,H,,, often is represented as a regular pentagon in which it is understood that each apex represents a carbon atom with the requisite number of hydro- 2-1 Structural Formulas gens to satisfy the tetravalence of carbon: cyclopentane Likewise, cyclopropane, C3H6;cyclobutane, C4H8;and cyclohexane, C6HI2, are drawn as regular polygons: cyclopropane cyclobutane cyclohexane Although this type of line drawing is employed most commonly for cyclic structures, its use for open chain (acyclic) structures is becoming increasingly widespread.

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