By Mark Kerins
Since electronic encompass sound know-how first seemed in cinemas two decades in the past, it has unfold from theaters to houses and from videos to tv, track, and games. but at the same time 5.1 has turn into the traditional for audiovisual media, its influence has long past unexamined. Drawing on works from the earlier 20 years, in addition to dozens of interviews with sound designers, mixers, and editors, Mark Kerins uncovers how 5.1 encompass has affected not only sound layout, yet cinematography and modifying to boot. past Dolby (Stereo) comprises particular analyses of struggle membership, The Matrix, Hairspray, Disturbia, The Rock, Saving deepest Ryan, and pleasure experience, between different motion pictures, to demonstrate the worth of a really audiovisual method of cinema studies.
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Extra resources for Beyond Dolby
37 The less-exorbitant costs of CinemaScope likewise produced results. 38 But as it became clear that theatrical audiences were declining despite Hollywood’s best technical efforts, the high costs of magnetic striping became prohibitively expensive relative to their return. S. theatrical revenues—overseas markets and domestic television—required monophonic sound mixing: foreign theaters were unlikely to have multi-channel capabilities, and television at the time was purely monophonic. Creating multi-channel mixes was therefore largely counterproductive, as any films mixed in stereo would later have to be remixed into mono.
95 Thus equipping a theater to show films from every studio required the installation of all three competing systems. While a few of the biggest venues did exactly that, for most theaters this was a financially impossible proposition. 96 Through a combination of luck and strategic planning, no technical conflicts prevented printing multiple digital sound formats on the same film—each DSS system had opted for a different placement of its soundtrack. Dolby Digital used small blocks of data placed in between the sprocket holes on one side of the film, as the company’s research had determined that this was an area of the print unlikely to be badly scratched or dirtied.
First, that any digital multi-channel system should use fully discrete channels rather than matrix encoding to avoid encountering Dolby Stereo’s problems with sounds not playing back in the correct channels. 70 What remained to be determined was the number of channels the new standard would require. As Tom Holman recalled in this chapter’s epigraph, a range of suggestions was proposed: the four-channel (left/ center/right/surround) configuration used by Dolby Stereo, a five-channel system mimicking Quintaphonics and the “split surround” 70mm version of Dolby Stereo, a six-channel system (five front channels plus one surround) like that used by Todd-AO, and others.