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By Michel Ter Hark (auth.)

Wittgenstein's aphoristic kind holds nice attraction, but additionally an outstanding chance: the reader is apt to glean an excessive amount of from a unmarried fragment and too little from the fragments as a complete. In my first confron­ tations with the Philosophical Investigations i used to be this type of reader, and so, it became out, have been lots of the writers on Wittgenstein's later philosophy. Wittgenstein's impressive skill to assemble many features of his concept in a single fragment is absolutely exploited within the serious literature; yet hardly ever any realization is paid to the relationship with different fragments, not to mention to the numerous hitherto unpublished manuscripts of which the Philosophical Investigations is the ultimate product. the results of this fragmentary and ahistorical method of Wittgenstein's later paintings is a bunch of contradictory interpretations. What Wittgenstein relatively desired to say continues to be insufficiently transparent. evaluations also are strongly divided concerning the worth of his paintings. a few authors were inspired via his aphorisms and rhetorical inquiries to brush aside the entire Cartesian culture or to halt new events in linguistics or psychology; others, exasperated, reject his philo­ sophy as anti-scientific conceptual conservatism. After consulting unpublished notebooks and manuscripts which Wittgenstein wrote among 1929 and 1951, I grew to become a really varied reader. Wittgenstein grew to become out to be a type of Leonardo da Vinci, who pursued a kind from which each and every signal of chisel­ ling, each try out at development, were effaced.

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Additional info for Beyond the Inner and the Outer: Wittgenstein’s Philosophy of Psychology

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Iii) The internal relation exists in a practice, in language. Wittgenstein was already convinced of (i) in the Tractatus, but of (ii) and (iii) only in his later work. The terms of an internal relation cannot but have this relation to one another (i). In other words, the identification of A is eo ipso the identification of B. Or in more Wittgensteinian fashion: the criterion for the identity of an action is the criterion for the identity of a rule. What the psychologism fallacy amounts to is that it presents the comprehension of a rule as being independent of its application: It seems so clear here: it is one thing 'to understand a word' and another 'to apply it'.

A third path crossed by the causal theory of meaning, in Wittgenstein's view, has to do with the nature of rule-guided behaviour. In a discussion about obeying rules (carrying out orders) he writes: 6 I am not saying that the attack on the psychological meaning-theory and its various offshoots were Wittgenstein's sole point of departure. On the contrary, it is one of many. Other points of departure are two topics that were discussed by the Vienna Circle in the 1920's, the relation of physical space to visual space and the problem of solipSism and other minds (see further chapter 4, §la).

To the latter list Wittgenstein might have added 'to expect', 'to hope', 'to believe', 'to think', and 'to intend', but not 'fear' or 'anger'. The reason for this is made clear by comparing 'hope' and 'anger'. It is easy to recall the angry face of somebody one knows and to imitate his expression. But what about somebody who hopes something? That is more difficult. Hope has no natural expression or typical gestures. ' (LW, § 357). The answer is: in the verbal expression 'I hope he will return'.

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