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By Jean-Louis Monino, Soraya Sedkaoui

The international has turn into electronic and technological advances have improved circuits with entry to info, their processing and their diffusion. New applied sciences have now reached a undeniable adulthood. facts can be found to everybody, at any place on the earth. The variety of net clients in 2014 was once 2.9 billion or forty-one% of the area inhabitants. the necessity for wisdom is changing into obvious as a way to comprehend this multitude of information. We needs to teach, tell and teach the loads. the advance of comparable applied sciences, reminiscent of the arrival of the web, social networks, "cloud-computing" (digital factories), has elevated the on hand volumes of information. at the moment, every one person creates, consumes, makes use of electronic details: greater than 3.4 million e-mails are despatched world wide each moment, or 107,000 billion every year with 14,600 e-mails consistent with 12 months in line with individual, yet greater than 70% are unsolicited mail. Billions of items of content material are shared on social networks akin to fb, greater than 2.46 million each minute. We spend greater than 4.8 hours an afternoon on the net utilizing a working laptop or computer, and 2.1 hours utilizing a cellular. facts, this new airy manna from heaven, is produced in actual time. It is available in a continuing flow from a mess of assets that are in most cases heterogeneous.

This accumulation of information of all kinds (audio, video, records, pictures, etc.) generates new actions, the purpose of that is to investigate this huge, immense mass of knowledge. it truly is then essential to adapt and check out new methods, new tools, new wisdom and new methods of operating, leading to new houses and new demanding situations in view that search engine optimization good judgment has to be created and applied. At corporation point, this mass of information is hard to regulate. Its interpretation is essentially a problem. This affects people who find themselves there to "manipulate" the mass and calls for a particular infrastructure for construction, garage, processing, research and restoration. the most important problem lies in "the valuing of knowledge" to be had in volume, variety and entry speed.

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Thee rise of Big Data D reflectss the growing g awareness of the “poweer” behind data, and of o the need to t enhance gathering, g exxploitation aand mpanies. As it enables more efficieent sharingg processes within com decision-making procedures, p g gaining acceess to a larrge volume of informaation and to t the toolss necessary to process it can alloow compannies to attaiin a better strategic s possition. Data thus becom mes compannies’ new strrategic asset, no matter th heir sector. 2. What changes have occurred in data analysis?

Two grids are made available, either with 1 km or 200-meter sectors. On the left, we see the map of France. It displays data corresponding to population estimates on a 1 km by 1 km grid. 6. fr website in 201110. Furthermore, on 27 January 2011, the city of Paris launched the platform “Paris Data”. 10 The law of July 17 1978 proposed the idea of generalized open public data and granted access to public information, thus setting the foundation for the information society. The right to reuse public information was created by the 2003 PSI European directive, which was translated in French law in 2005, and whose revision was approved by the EU Council on April 2013.

However, in the Big Data universe, the main objective is still related to a much more important “V”, namely value-extraction. “The consensus today is to place the data scientist at the intersection of three fields of expertise: computer science, statistics, and mathematics, “Business Knowledge” [ABI 13]. In relation to new data structures, the statistician-turned-data scientist revisits basic notions to focus on tools and methods that can lead to useful applications compatible with new information systems.

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