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By Anne V. Whyte

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Extra resources for Building a New South Africa: Volume 4 (Environment, Reconstruction and Development)

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Currently, the management of land resources is spread over several ministries, each carrying out their jurisdictions as mandated by their specific acts.

The remaining 13 percent of the country allocated to black ownership was further divided into unviable patches allocated to specific ethnic groups endorsed by Pretoria. These ethnic territories were reconceived as the “homelands” of most black people. Black people were allocated limited rights there in exchange for their loss of rights in the remaining 87 percent of the country. For the 4 out of 10 “homelands” whose puppet leaders accepted a spurious independence, recognized only by the apartheid government, the entire ethnic group was deprived of its South African citizenship.

This poses a potential conflict of interest in carrying out their mandates. Included among these departments are the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. Ineffective enforcement — One of the most frequently cited problems with current environmental management is that of ineffective enforcement of the legislation in place. The fines specified in legislation, such as those for failing to undertake rehabilitation of mines, are cited as being ludicrously low and not acting as a deterrent.

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