By Hélène Bouchiat, Yuval Gefen, Sophie Guéron Engineering Diploma 1993D.E.A. de Physique des Solides 1994Ph.D. Université Paris VI 1997, Gilles Montambaux Ph.D. Thesis 1985, Jean Dalibard Ph.D.
The advancements of nanofabrication long ago years have enabled the layout of digital platforms that convey brilliant signatures of quantum coherence. Nanofabricated quantum wires and dots containing a small variety of electrons are perfect experimental playgrounds for probing electron-electron interactions and their interaction with ailment. happening to even smaller scales, molecules reminiscent of carbon nanotubes, fullerenes or hydrogen molecules can now be inserted in nanocircuits. Measurements of delivery via a unmarried chain of atoms were played in addition. a lot growth has additionally been made within the layout and fabrication of superconducting and hybrid nanostructures, be they normal/superconductor or ferromagnetic/superconductor. Quantum coherence is then now not that of person digital states, yet really that of a superconducting wavefunction of a macroscopic variety of Cooper pairs condensed within the related quantum mechanical nation. past the research of linear reaction regime, the physics of non-equilibrium delivery (including non-linear shipping, rectification of a excessive frequency electrical box in addition to shot noise) has bought a lot awareness, with major experimental and theoretical insights. most of these amounts express very particular signatures of the quantum nature of shipping, which can't be received from uncomplicated conductance measurements.