By Frank A. Bovey
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Additional resources for Chain Structure and Conformation of Macromolecules
Relative handedness is implied, however, in the projection formulas. 2 45 Model Compounds for Vinyl Chains T h e protons H and H ( will be nonequivalent from previous a r g u m e n t s . H o w e v e r , if t h e asymmetric centers are of like chirality d,d (R,R) or /,/ (S,S) we have a pair of e n a n t i o m e r s that give identical N M R spectra (except in a chiral solvent): ( a ) b ) H CH. (a) (a) H CH. R CH3 CH, l (a) T h e s e molecules, although asymmetric, have a twofold axis of s y m m e t r y and are s o m e t i m e s t e r m e d "dissymmetric" to distinguish t h e m from chiral molecules having no e l e m e n t of symmetry.
Unit of magnetic flux density; 1 tesla is equivalent to 10,000 gauss) such nuclei occupy quantized magnetic energy levels t h e n u m b e r of which is equal to 2 / + 1 and the relative populations of which are normally given by a Boltzmann distribution. W e shall deal only with nuclei for which 7 = 1 / 2 : the proton ( H ) and t h e C nucleus. T h e s e nuclei have two magnetic energy states separated by 0 ! 5) 0 in which μ is t h e magnetic m o m e n t of t h e nucleus. Transitions between these energy levels can be made to occur by means of a resonant radio frequency (rf) field B having a frequency v .
Such nuclei are described by spin q u a n t u m n u m b e r s / (usually referred to simply as "the spin") having integral or half-integral values. W h e n placed in a magnetic field of strength Z? I. unit of magnetic flux density; 1 tesla is equivalent to 10,000 gauss) such nuclei occupy quantized magnetic energy levels t h e n u m b e r of which is equal to 2 / + 1 and the relative populations of which are normally given by a Boltzmann distribution. W e shall deal only with nuclei for which 7 = 1 / 2 : the proton ( H ) and t h e C nucleus.