By Martin S. Silberberg
Nice textbook for individuals enrolled more often than not Chemistry I and II in collage.
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Extra resources for Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, Fifth Edition
The apparatus shown here is engaged in distillation, a process still commonly used to separate substances. This is a portion of a painting by the Englishman Joseph Wright. Some think it portrays the German alchemist Hennig Brand in his laboratory, lit by the glow of phosphorus, which he discovered in 1669. AD by Greeks living in northern Egypt later became known by the Arabic name alchemy. Its practice spread through the Near East and into Europe, where it dominated Western thinking about matter for more than 1500 years!
A chemical change, also called a chemical reaction, occurs when a substance (or substances) is converted into a different substance (or substances). 1B shows the chemical change (reaction) that occurs when you pass an electric current through water: the water decomposes (breaks down) into two other substances, hydrogen and oxygen, each with physical and chemical properties different from each other and from water. The sample has changed its composition: it is no longer water, as you can see from the different particles in the magnified views.
There are no springs in a chemical substance, of course, but the following situation is similar in terms of energy. Much of the matter in the universe is composed of positively and negatively charged particles. A well-known behavior of charged particles (similar to the behavior of the poles of magnets) results from interactions known as electrostatic forces: opposite charges attract each other, and like charges repel each other. When work is done to separate a positive particle from a negative one, the potential energy of the particles increases.