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In each administrative division there were departments of education, responsible to both the educational departments at the next higher level and to the People's Congress. At the lowest level of the educational bureaucracy were the schools, which were responsible to the office of Figure 4. Command Relationship of the Administration of Education Administrative Divisions Legislative Body National level National People's Congress State Council Ministries of Education Provincial level People's Congress People's Council Departments of Education County level People's Congress People's Council Village & town People's Congress People's Council Departments of Education I Departments of Education The arrow shows the direction of command.

2 The criteria by which the party identified a person as either bourgeois or a member of the proletariat did not rest to any great extent on his possession of the means of production. It rested on his family background as it existed before liberation and on his ideology as it related to the acceptance of socialism. Even though the ownership of property may have ceased to exist, it remained one of the criteria of identification because the ideologies of the different classes remained, although they took various forms.

A crude index in determining a person's position in relation to the organization of Chinese education is whether he was more involved in policy-making or in implementation. Even though the ideology of the ruling class emphasized the common good, and sectarian or narrow professional interests were frowned upon,10 divisions between the policy-making and implementation levels did exist, and they must be distinguished because these divisions defined a person's role in the educational process. There was also a tendency for Communist Party members to dominate the decision-making level and for non-communists or traditional elites to occupy the implementation level.

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