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By 杨炯, 卢照邻

卢照邻,字升之,自号幽忧子,汉族,幽州范阳(治今河北省定兴县)人,初唐诗人。其生卒年史无明载,后人有多种说法,有三子,现其后人居住在河北省正定县内。
卢照邻出身望族,曾为王府典签,又出任益州新都(今四川成都附近)尉,在文学上,他与王勃、杨炯、骆宾王以文词齐名,世称“王杨卢骆”,号为“初唐四杰”。有7卷本的《卢升之集》、明张燮辑注的《幽忧子集》存世。
卢照邻尤工诗歌骈文,以歌行体为佳,不少佳句传颂不绝,如“得成比目何辞死,愿作鸳鸯不羡仙”等,更被后人誉为经典。

杨炯(650年-692年),汉族,弘农华阴(今属陕西)人,排行第七,唐朝诗人,初唐四杰之一。显庆六年(公元661年),年仅11岁的杨炯被举为神童,上元三年(676年)应制举及第,授校书郎。后又任崇文馆学士,迁詹事、司直。垂拱元年(685年),降官为梓州司法参军。天授元年(690年),任教于洛阳宫中习艺馆。如意元年(692年)秋后改任盈川县令,吏治以严酷著称,卒于任所。因此后人称他为“杨盈川”。

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Extra resources for Collection of Yang Jiong and Lu Zhaolin (Chinese classical literature series) (中国古典文学基本丛书:杨炯集, 卢照邻集)

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At the territorial levels of administration below them - in the circuits or tao consisting of two or more prefectures (/»), which in turn consisted of two or more counties (hsien), and in the fifteen hundred or so counties or similar bodies at the lowest level - the official posts were held almost entirely by Chinese. In the military branch, remnants of the Ming garrisons (wet and so) had been made the original nuclei under the Ch'ing of the ' green battalions ' or Army of the Green Standard (lu-jing), stationed in small posts all over the country.

Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 FOREIGN RELATIONS 31 The expeditions sent out by Hung-wu's vigorous successor, Yung-lo, were headed mainly by eunuchs who thus were personal representatives of the emperor, rather than of his government. These totalled forty-eight missions in the course of twenty-two years. They carried costly gifts to the tributary rulers but, at the same time, brought an imposing naval force and offered protection. 14 The grand design by which the Son of Heaven in China generously admitted non-Chinese to the cultured order of civilization had been further developed by the Ch'ing dynasty.

By 1800 the big households (ta-hu) of the Chinese countryside may have maintained some sort of balance between conscientious leadership of the community and selfish family-centred exploitation of tenants; but the proportions of this balance are stiJl another unresolved question. Tenancy is known to have been less in the generally less productive farming areas of north and north-west China where less surplus crop could be grown, harvested, transported or marketed to urban consumers. But this may be viewed as a picture of poverty so great that landlordism could not be made to pay.

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