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Extra resources for Collection of Yang Jiong and Lu Zhaolin (Chinese classical literature series) (中国古典文学基本丛书:杨炯集, 卢照邻集)

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At the territorial levels of administration below them - in the circuits or tao consisting of two or more prefectures (/»), which in turn consisted of two or more counties (hsien), and in the fifteen hundred or so counties or similar bodies at the lowest level - the official posts were held almost entirely by Chinese. In the military branch, remnants of the Ming garrisons (wet and so) had been made the original nuclei under the Ch'ing of the ' green battalions ' or Army of the Green Standard (lu-jing), stationed in small posts all over the country.

Cambridge Histories Online © Cambridge University Press, 2008 FOREIGN RELATIONS 31 The expeditions sent out by Hung-wu's vigorous successor, Yung-lo, were headed mainly by eunuchs who thus were personal representatives of the emperor, rather than of his government. These totalled forty-eight missions in the course of twenty-two years. They carried costly gifts to the tributary rulers but, at the same time, brought an imposing naval force and offered protection. 14 The grand design by which the Son of Heaven in China generously admitted non-Chinese to the cultured order of civilization had been further developed by the Ch'ing dynasty.

By 1800 the big households (ta-hu) of the Chinese countryside may have maintained some sort of balance between conscientious leadership of the community and selfish family-centred exploitation of tenants; but the proportions of this balance are stiJl another unresolved question. Tenancy is known to have been less in the generally less productive farming areas of north and north-west China where less surplus crop could be grown, harvested, transported or marketed to urban consumers. But this may be viewed as a picture of poverty so great that landlordism could not be made to pay.

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