By Takahiko Misugi, Akihiro Shibatomi
In fresh years, III-V units, built-in circuits, and superconducting built-in circuits have emerged as best contenders for high-frequency and ultrahigh velocity functions. GaAs MESFETs were utilized in microwave platforms as low-noise and high-power amplifiers because the early Seventies, exchanging silicon units. The heterojunction high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT), invented in 1980, has turn into a key part for satellite tv for pc broadcasting receiver platforms, serving because the ultra-low-noise equipment at 12 GHz. additionally, the heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) has been regarded as having the top switching pace and cutoff frequency within the semiconductor gadget box. at first almost all these units have been used for analog high-frequency purposes, yet there's additionally a powerful have to improve high-speed III-V electronic units for machine, telecom munication, and instrumentation structures, to switch silicon high-speed units, as a result of the switching-speed and power-dissipation obstacles of silicon. the aptitude excessive velocity and occasional strength dissipation of electronic built-in circuits utilizing GaAs MESFET, HEMT, HBT, and superconducting Josephson junction units has evoked large festival within the race to enhance such know-how. A expertise assessment exhibits that jap study institutes and corporations have taken the lead within the improvement of those units, and a few built-in circuits have already been utilized to supercomputers in Japan. The actions of jap learn institutes and firms within the III-V and superconducting machine fields were more advantageous for 3 purposes. First, bulk crystal progress, epitaxial progress, approach, and layout expertise have been constructed on the similar time.
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Extra info for Compound and Josephson High-Speed Devices
Relation between carbon concentration and resistivity in undoped GaAs crystal. Undoped LEC GaAs 10 8 Rapid cooling (No= 1 x 10 14 ) 107 'E C) .. 31. Resistivity of undoped GaAs crystal in low-carbon-concentration region. 4. 3. SIMS Measurement Result of Typical Impurities Other than Carbon in Undoped GaAs Crystal B Si s Cr Mn Fe Cu Zn Seed 2 e 16 < 1 e 14 < 1 e 15 < 5 e 13 < 3 e 13 2 e 14 < 1 e 15 < 1 e 15 Tail 2 e 16 < 1 e 14 < 1 e 15 < 5 e 13 < 3 e 13 < 1 e 14 < 1 e 15 < 1 e 15 Middle 1 e 16 < 1 e 14 < 1 e 15 < 5 e 13 < 3 e 13 1 e 14 < 1 e 15 < 1 e 15 measurement is an electrical one and is accurate and convenient.
LLI 100 Wafer No. 24. EPD distributions in 2-inch- and 3-inch-diameter In-doped GaAs crystals grown with G/R technique. was not observed until g = 0· 6, and the length of the single crystal was about 100 mm, which can yield more than 80 wafers. 3, and the single-crystal length was 40 mm, which yields about 30 wafers. In the 2-inchdiameter case, to which the same G /R growth technique was applied, the singlecrystal length was about 140 mm, which can yield more than 150 wafers. This lot size is twice that of a conventional In-doped crystal.
6 x 10' 1Q4L-~--~---L--~----~--~---L~ 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 (mm) (011) Distance from center OF EPD distribution in a wafer in 5-inch-diameter undoped GaAs crystal. 16. < 5•6l From these viewpoints the reduction of the dislocation density is a very important requirement for substrate quality. Dislocations are generated when the applied stress exceeds the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS). In the case of LEC crystal growth most of the applied stress is due to temperature distribution in the crystal.