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By Stephen Ward, Robert Halstead

This ebook is particularly entire, and drills deep down into the magic layers that make desktops paintings. someone heavily drawn to programming, and electronics may still learn this quantity.

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In fact, both representations have two distinct bit strings corresponding to +O and -0. Having two representations for semantically the same quantityis a constant irritation when using these representations; it is avoided by the 2's c o ~ ~ Z er~e ~er~e st e ~ t ~ in tio~, which the bit string corresponding to a negative number is calculated by forming the 1'S complement representation of the number and then adding 1. For example, 38 Binary resentati at ions and Notation the 4-bit 2’s complement representation of -5 is 1011.

Currently the highest densities are obtainable using ~etal-o~ide se~iconductor OS) technologies. The basic switching element in an OS gate is a ~ e 1 d " e ~ e c t tra~sistor,or FET, whose principal characteristic is its very high input impedance: An input to an FET draws virtually no current and hence consumes virtually no power. Nearlyall of thesingle-chipcomputers, for example,useMOS technologies. MOS transistors, like bipolarones,comeintwopolarities,called ~-c~annel and ~ - c ~ a n n erespectively.

Second,it provides a substantially poorer pathfor current flow to VCCthan a saturated transistor provides to ground; hence it introduces an asymmetry between the rise and fall times of the device. Adjustments in the value of the pullup resistor affect both the switching speed and the power dissipated bythe gate. For a resistance R and total stray capacitance C, the switching times are on the order of R C seconds; hence halving the value of the pullup resistor speeds up the device. However, the power dissipated by the resistor on a low-voltage output is roughly Thus the product of the switching time andthe power dissipation, often cited as the s ~ e e ~ - p o ~ e r p r o is ~ urelatively ct, independent of the value of R and is approximately constant for a particular logic family or implementation strategy.

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