Download Computer Architecture Techniques for Power-Efficiency by Stefanos Kaxiras PDF

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By Stefanos Kaxiras

Within the previous couple of years, energy dissipation has turn into a tremendous layout constraint, on par with functionality, within the layout of recent desktops. while some time past, the first activity of the pc architect was once to translate advancements in working frequency and transistor count number into functionality, now energy potency needs to be taken under consideration at each step of the layout method. whereas for it slow, architects were winning in offering forty% to 50% annual development in processor functionality, charges that have been formerly dismissed finally stuck up. the main severe of those charges is the inexorable bring up in energy dissipation and gear density in processors. strength dissipation matters have catalyzed new subject components in computing device structure, leading to a considerable physique of labor on extra power-efficient architectures. energy dissipation coupled with diminishing functionality earnings, was once additionally the most reason for the change from single-core to multi-core architectures and a slowdown in frequency raise. This e-book goals to rfile the most very important architectural thoughts that have been invented, proposed, and utilized to lessen either dynamic energy and static energy dissipation in processors and reminiscence hierarchies. an important variety of suggestions were proposed for quite a lot of occasions and this e-book synthesizes these innovations by way of concentrating on their universal features.

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Used such IPC estimates to guide aggregate provisioning decisions in data centers [74]. Joseph and Martonosi used an early version of such techniques to estimate power on an Intel Pentium Pro microprocessor [119]. For subsequent microprocessors in which clock gating (and other techniques) mean more widely varying power, these approaches needed to be refined in terms of how individual performance counters were weighted and summed to provide an overall power estimate. Contreras and Martonosi describe one such approach with offline linear estimates created based on specially written benchmarks [62].

If the real-time workload is not mixed with non-real-time applications, then DVFS controlled by an on-line policy is probably not necessary—scheduling can be determined off-line. cls June 27, 2008 9:33 USING VOLTAGE AND FREQUENCY ADJUSTMENTS TO MANAGE DYNAMIC POWER 29 Flautner et al. consider an entirely different class of machines. In general-purpose machines running an operating system such as Linux, program deadlines have to do more with user perception than with some strict formulation. Thus, the goal in their work is to discover “deadlines” in irregular and multiprogrammed workloads that ensure the quality of interactive performance.

If the real-time workload is not mixed with non-real-time applications, then DVFS controlled by an on-line policy is probably not necessary—scheduling can be determined off-line. cls June 27, 2008 9:33 USING VOLTAGE AND FREQUENCY ADJUSTMENTS TO MANAGE DYNAMIC POWER 29 Flautner et al. consider an entirely different class of machines. In general-purpose machines running an operating system such as Linux, program deadlines have to do more with user perception than with some strict formulation. Thus, the goal in their work is to discover “deadlines” in irregular and multiprogrammed workloads that ensure the quality of interactive performance.

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