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By J. P. Moreland

In Consciousness and the lifestyles of God, J.P. Moreland argues that the life of finite, irreducible awareness (or its general, law-like correlation with actual states) presents facts for the life of God. in addition, he analyzes and criticizes the pinnacle consultant of rival techniques to explaining the foundation of awareness, together with John Searle’s contingent correlation, Timothy O’Connor’s emergent necessitation, Colin McGinn’s mysterian "naturalism," David Skrbina’s panpsychism and Philip Clayton’s pluralistic emergentist monism. Moreland concludes that those techniques will be rejected in prefer of what he calls "the Argument from Consciousness."

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Regarding emergent properties, though some demur, at least five reasons have been proffered for the claim that causal explanations in the natural sciences exhibit a kind of causal necessity, that on a typical realist construal of natural science, physical causal explanations must show—usually by citing a mechanism—why an effect must follow given the relevant causal conditions: 26 The epistemic backdrop (1) Causal necessitation unpacks the deepest, core realist notion of causation, namely, causal production according to which a cause ‘‘brings about’’ or ‘‘produces’’ its effect.

Mental properties are emergent in the sense that they are genuinely new kinds of properties that in no way characterize the base level. However, the ‘‘reconfigured’’ trajectory is merely a new combination of spatial and temporal properties that already characterize the base. The wheel case is merely an example of outside-in causal interaction due to wider structural relations at the base level. I believe similar problems beset other alleged cases of top/down causation. There is also a problem with emergent causal powers and laws in the special sciences.

The wheel case is merely an example of outside-in causal interaction due to wider structural relations at the base level. I believe similar problems beset other alleged cases of top/down causation. There is also a problem with emergent causal powers and laws in the special sciences. 41 According to Kim, if we grant property/event dualism, then given causal closure and the rejection of overdetermination, mental top/down causation cannot occur. He also argues that causal closure is not needed for the rejection of mental causation.

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