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By Teuvo Kohonen

Due to continuous growth within the large-scale integration of semiconductor circuits, parallel computing rules can already be met in reasonably cheap sys­ tems: various examples exist in snapshot processing, for which distinctive challenging­ ware is implementable with really modest assets even by means of nonprofessional designers. rules of content material addressing, if completely understood, can thereby be utilized successfully utilizing common elements. nevertheless, mass garage according to associative rules nonetheless exists in simple terms within the lengthy­ time period plans of computing device technologists. this example is a little burdened by way of the truth that convinced expectancies are held for the improvement of latest garage media corresponding to optical thoughts and "spin glasses" (metal alloys with low-density magnetic impurities). Their applied sciences, even though, won't ripen until eventually after "fifth iteration" pcs were outfitted. apparently software program equipment for content material addressing, particularly these in accordance with hash coding ideas, are nonetheless preserving their place firmly, and some ideas were constructed lately. As they want no certain undefined, one could anticipate that they are going to unfold to a large circle of clients. This monograph relies on an in depth literature survey, such a lot of which was once released within the First version. i've got additional Chap. ?, which incorporates a evaluate of more moderen paintings. This up-to-date booklet now has references to over 1200 unique guides. within the enhancing of the recent fabric, I obtained invaluable support from Anneli HeimbUrger, M. Sc. , and Mrs. Leila Koivisto.

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The genuine process of associative recall thus ought to take into account some extended form of the concept of simi~arity. Several approaches, in an approximately ascending order of generality, to the definition of this concept are made below. Hamming Distance. Perhaps the best known measure of similarity, or in fact dissimilarity between digital representations is the Hamming distance. 38], but it is readily applicable to comparison of any ordered sets which consist of discrete-valued elements.

22) becomes M= XX+ . 24) Incidentally, this is the so-called orthogonaZ projeetion operator or projeetor with some interesting properties. It is said that the vectors xk span a Zinear subspaee~c Rn , or they constitute the basis vectors of ~. 25) such that ~ is the Zinear regression (best linear combination) of the xk on x in the sense of least squares, and is the residual. In fact, ~ and are mutually orthogonal. It is said that ~ is the optimaZ autoassoeiative reeoZZeetion relative to the stored information {x k} and the search argument x.

Compare the symbol pairs corresponding to these three points. If there is one match only, take the corresponding point for the next point on the line. If there is no match, select (i+1,j+1) for the next point on the line. If there are matches at (i+1,j+1) and some other point, select (i+1,j+1). If there are matches only at (i+1,j) and (i+1,j+2), select for the next point (i+1,j+2). A matching score is now determined by counting the number of matching pairs of symbols along the above line. lb. e- ~ IJ1 IJ1 ~ PATTERN i-- R A R T A P -- 1/ i>" I " PET E R S Fig.

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