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We believe that many of the basic motivational systems underlying parental behavior are still with us, and that recognition of the reasons for parent-offspring conﬂict will help us to understand the causes of corporal punishment in human families. Note We would like to thank Karin Blau, Jill Kusnitz, Michaela Heeb, Dan Diekmann, Grenville Morton, and all of the past observers and research assistants who made this research possible. Funding was provided by National Science Foundation grants BNS 84-02292, BNS 87-09765, and BNS 91-108017 to Lynn Fairbanks and by Veterans Administration Merit Review grants to Michael McGuire.
1991). At the worst extreme of economic deprivation, a mother might be in such poor condition, and so deprived of resources, that she has no energy to spare to care for her offspring without severely jeopardizing her own survival. A primate infant can’t survive without its mother, and the ﬁtness of older immature offspring would also be reduced by the mother’s death. In such a case, the best strategy for the mother is to abandon her youngest and most dependent infant and save herself. This would result in the most severe form of conﬂict and the likely death of the dependent infant.
This expression is usually accompanied by a sudden jerking motion of the head or body toward the offender. When mothers are trying to restrict the activity of their juvenile offspring, they use a combination of contact aggression and noncontact threats. For adolescent offspring, noncontact threats usually convey enough information, and they are rarely ever followed by contact aggression. Corporal Punishment in Primates 31 The Economics of Corporal Punishment Parental-investment theory predicts that the level of parent-offspring conﬂict should be related to the disparity between the cost/beneﬁt functions for parents and offspring.