By Professor Dr. M. Kluge, Professor I. P. Ting (auth.)
The acid metabolism of yes succulent vegetation, referred to now as Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) has involved plant physiologists and biochemists for the final one and a part centuries. besides the fact that, because the uncomplicated discoveries of De Saussure in 1804 that stem joints of Opuntia have been in a position to get rid of CO from the two surroundings in the course of the evening, and of Heyne in 1815 (see Wolf, 1960) that natural acids collect within the leaves of Bryophyllum calycinum through the evening, the 2 major facets of CAM, diurnal CO gasoline trade and metabolism of malic acid, 2 have first been studied approximately independently. therefore, it isn't mind-blowing that the majority learn to explain the mechanism of CAM has been over the past 15 years on the grounds that CO alternate and malate metabolism have been studied and interpreted in its 2 context. those efforts ultimately ended in a transparent awareness that the CAM phenom enon is a version at the mode of the way vegetation can photosynthetically harvest CO from the ambience. 2 the translation of CAM during this experience was once prompted by way of the invention of one other version of photosynthesis, the C -pathway (see Black, 1973; Hatch and four Slack, 1970; Hatch, 1976). simply because this newly found photosynthetic pathway is famous to be very heavily regarding the CAM pathway, the paintings at the latter turned intensified in the course of those final years.
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Additional resources for Crassulacean Acid Metabolism: Analysis of an Ecological Adaptation
Starch) during the subsequent light or deacidification period (see Bennet-Clark, 1933 for example). 2 Dark CO 2 Fixation and Its First Product It is now generally accepted that dark fixation of CO 2 is the key reaction in CAM. Virtually all experiments conducted to date substantiate the hypothesis that malate 1 is the first and primary stable product of CO 2 fixation in CAM. Thurlow and Bonner and Bonner and Bonner in 1948 were perhaps the first to show dark 14C02 fixation into malate as well as other organic acids induding citrate, isocitrate, fumarate, and succinate.
Therefore, we use the term "malate" when we are talking about everything except the storage in the vacuoles. 2 3 Phenol - ~O - aJ ----- • Fig. 1. Autoradiogram of two dimensional paper chromatogram of 60 minute dark 14C02 fixation by Bryophyllum ca/ycinum. 1, alanine; 2, glutamine; 3, asparagine; 4, glycine; 5, serine ; 6, glutamate; 7, aspartate ; 8, citrate; 9, isocitrate; 10, malate; 11, fumarate; 12, succinate. The main labeled compound is malate. Other metabolically related organic and amino acids also appear.
27 Fig. 28 Fig. 27. X erosicyos, a CAM succulent member of the Cucurbitaceae, native to Madagascar Fig. 28. Several species of Didieriaceae, leaf and stem succulents of the Madagascar endemic family. The succulent leaves show CAM activity The survey revealed the following new families as having probable CAM: Cucurbitaceae (Fig. 27), Didieraceae (Fig. 28), Labiatae, Oxalidaceae, Piperaceae, and Portulacaceae (Fig. 29). In addition, within the previously reported Geraniaceae, Pelargonium ceratophyllum was shown to have a diurnal fluctuation of acidity.