By Walter Bollmann
It is nonnal for the preface to provide an explanation for the incentive in the back of the writing of the ebook. on account that many solid books facing the final thought of crystal defects exist already, a brand new booklet needs to be specifically justified, and right here its major justification lies in its therapy of crystal line interfaces. approximately 1961, the paintings of the writer, primarily in keeping with the basic paintings of Professor F. C. Frank, began to department clear of the most move of proposal during this box and at last resulted in a common geometrical thought that's offered as a complete for the 1st time during this booklet. even though approximately all that's awarded has already been released in numerous journals and symposia, it'd be tricky for the reader to stick to that literature, as a brand new terminology and new tools of research needed to be built. precise emphasis is given to dialogue and lots of diagrams are integrated so that a transparent view of the fundamental options be got. Intennediate summaries try and deliver out the details of the chapters. rather than particular workouts, common feedback for them are given. The half as much as bankruptcy nine is taken into account kind of as introductory, in order that the booklet should be studied with out particular wisdom of crystals and crystal defects. The presentation of that half constructed out of lectures given through the writer on the Swiss Federal Institute of expertise (ETH) in Zurich.
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Additional info for Crystal Defects and Crystalline Interfaces
The first case is possible, for example, in strongly anisotropic crystals such as graphite, where an atom is highly mobile between the layers but strongly bonded within them. In the face-centred cubic structure interstitial atoms, and especially impurity atoms, can be located in octahedral-(1/2 ) -or tetrahedral-(1/4 ) holes, eventually leading to distortion of the surrounding lattice. On the other hand, there are arrangements such 4. Point Defects 38 as dumbbells (Fig. 1/2), in which the interstitial atoms cannot be located separately, and which must obviously move along the dumbbell axis as a configuration and not as individual atoms (Fig.
98. 11. 8) shows that the chemical bond can be different in different directions, thus producing strongly anisotropic materials. In layer structures the bond is stronger within the layers than between them. It is also possible that the bond in one direction is stronger than in all the others, thus creating primarily chain molecules with more or less loose side-bonds. 1). Several equivalent side bonds per unit length may be present, such that the chains can be linked to one another in different (relative) Chapters 2-3.
3-3). We shall see that the relations between dislocations and Moire figures can be extended much further, and that the latter provide a useful means for studying dislocation arrangements. 6. 1. Outline Up to now the situation and behaviour of a dislocation have been considered essentially independently of the surroundings. Now, these surroundings appear in the fonn of an external stress field acting on the dislocation. The forces which can move the dislocation originate from this stress field.