By Thierry Duffar
The call for for big, top quality unmarried crystals has elevated quickly end result of the starting to be semiconductor and optics undefined, the place ideal unmarried crystals are used as substrates or parts for units.
Crystal progress procedures in accordance with Capillarity covers all crystal development ideas and explains why and the way they're depending on liquid floor phenomena, or capillarity. every one bankruptcy addresses basic capillary results, exact experimental advancements, technically vital methods, and linked software program. The booklet comprises:
- Basic rules of capillarity, wetting and development perspective facts and particular mathematical remedies
- Shape balance in capillary crystal progress, together with Verneuil and Czochralski ideas
- Czochralski approach dynamics and regulate
- Floating quarter crystal development
- Shaped crystal development of silicon and sapphire, micro-pulling down innovations
- Vertical Bridgman and dewetting approaches
- Marangoni convection in crystal progress
With over 25 years event, Duffar brings jointly an outstanding stability of conception and experimental options, making this a source for all crystal growers in either study and in industry.Content:
Chapter 1 uncomplicated rules of Capillarity when it comes to Crystal development (pages 1–49): Nicolas Eustathopoulos, Beatrice Drevet, Simon Brandon and Alexander Virozub
Chapter 2 the potential of form balance in Capillary Crystal progress and functional recognition of formed Crystals (pages 51–114): Vitali A. Tatartchenko
Chapter three Czochralski strategy Dynamics and regulate layout (pages 115–202): Jan Winkler, Michael Neubert, Joachim Rudolph, Ning Duanmu and Michael Gevelber
Chapter four Floating region Crystal development (pages 203–275): Anke Ludge, Helge Riemann, Michael Wunscher, Gunter Behr, Wolfgang Loser, Andris Muiznieks and Arne Croll
Chapter five formed Crystal progress (pages 277–354): Vladimir N. Kurlov, Sergei N. Rossolenko, Nikolai V. Abrosimov and Kheirreddine Lebbou
Chapter 6 Vertical Bridgman procedure and Dewetting (pages 355–411): Thierry Duffar and Lamine Sylla
Chapter 7 Marangoni Convection in Crystal progress (pages 413–464): Arne Croll, Taketoshi Hibiya, Suguru Shiratori, Koichi Kakimoto and Lijun Liu
Chapter eight Mathematical and Numerical research of Capillarity difficulties and approaches (pages 465–524): Liliana Braescu, Simona Epure and Thierry Duffar
Read or Download Crystal Growth Processes Based on Capillarity: Czochralski, Floating Zone, Shaping and Crucible Techniques PDF
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Additional info for Crystal Growth Processes Based on Capillarity: Czochralski, Floating Zone, Shaping and Crucible Techniques
Similar phenomena occur with Ge–Si alloys on AlN [Cröll 2002]. BN is also an oxidizable ceramic but boron oxide, B2O3, which is liquid above 450 °C, is a volatile oxide such that clean BN surfaces are expected to form at higher temperatures, especially in high vacuum. Nonreactive metals such as Ga, Sn, Ag, Au do not wet BN at temperatures of 1000–1100 °C, the contact angle being in the range 130–150 ° [Naidich 1981]. No significant differences in wettability have been found between hexagonal and cubic BN [Naidich 1981].
Effect of Increased Surface Area – Wenzel Equation. 11) According to this equation, for θW < 90 ° and if sr > 1/cosθW, perfect wetting will be observed. Effect of Sharp Edges – Hysteresis of Contact Angle. e. at contact angles markedly different from θY. 5 where a solid substrate with an horizontal surface A1 and another surface A2 inclined at an angle β is considered. 5, corresponds to a contact angle on the A1 surface θ(A1) = θY. Then, if the liquid volume is increased slowly enough for the liquid to retain capillary equilibrium, the TPL will advance on surface A1 and reach configuration (2) where the contact angle at point N is θN(A1) = θY.
165] [Tanaka 1996] [Tanaka 1996] [Tanaka 1996] [Tanaka 1996] [Tanaka 1996] [Tanaka 1996] [Shi 1980] Tl, temperature of liquidus; Tm, melting temperature. a Two groups of values for both γlv(Tm) and dγlv/dT have been found. wettability, adhesion is ensured mainly by weak, van der Waals, interactions. Typical examples are the noble metals Ag, Au, Cu and the low melting point metals Ga, In, Pb, Sn on SiO2 or Al2O3 substrates. Note that for these systems, the contact angle decreases with temperature only slightly (dθ/dT ≅ 10−2/K).