By Claudio De Rosa
"Polymeric crystals are extra advanced in nature than different fabrics' crystal constructions as a result of major structural disease current. actually, they really exist in a semicrystalline kingdom the place the crystals are embedded in an amorphous section to create a hugely interconnected community. proposing an in-depth and present assessment of polymer crystals, Crystals and Crystallinity in Polymers presents researchers, engineers, and graduate scholars with instructions to assist choose the right kind crystallization procedure, evaluation polymer crystallization facts, be certain which how to make the most of for specific circumstances, and comprehend the various analytical options utilized"--
"This ebook presents a complete rationalization and review of the complicated subject of polymer crystallography in a manner that allows readers to guage polymer crystallization facts and ensure which easy methods to make the most of for specific cases"-- Read more...
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Extra info for Crystals and crystallinity in polymers : diffraction analysis of ordered and disordered crystals
19. Relationships between torsion angles θ1, θ2, and θ3 around the C2−C3 bond for different configurations (B and D) of the chiral center C3 and assuming a strictly tetrahedral bond angle at C3. In the Newman projections (C,E), the torsion angle θ1 is assumed θ1 = 180° as an example and the angles between the planes C2C3R1 and C2C3R2, or C2C3R1 and C2C3R3, or C2C3R2 and C2C3R3 are 120°. 9) ψ ′ = 360° − 2 ψ . 6°. 12: cos ψ = (3/ 4)sin 2 2 τ 2 − sin 2 τ 2 (3/ 4)sin 2 2 τ 2 + sin 2 τ 2 ψ ′ = (360° − ψ )/ 2.
In the meso relative configuration, the two stereoisomeric centers have the same configuration, whereas in the racemo relative configuration, the two connected units are enantiomeric (21d). 7, a couple of consecutive tertiary carbon atoms does not define a diad and cannot be considered as in a meso arrangement because the connecting group –O–CH2– lacks the necessary symmetry. 8. Meso and racemo relative configurations of diad stereosequences shown in rotated Fischer projections (1, 4) and zigzag chains (2, 3, 5).
Copolymers of different monomers that are able to cocrystallize in the same lattice may be considered as possible exceptions to the need of the regularity in the chemical constitution. For instance, in the case of vinyl polymers, it is possible to accommodate into the crystalline lattice different comonomeric units having lateral groups with different shapes and dimensions. Isotactic copolymers of butene and 3-methylbutene (28) or isotactic copolymers of styrene and o-fluorostyrene (29) are crystalline in the whole range of composition, whereas propene and 1-butene comonomeric units are able to cocrystallize at any composition in both isotactic (30–33) and syndiotactic copolymers (34,35).