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By Siegmund Brandt

1. 1 normal difficulties of information research each department of experimental technological know-how, after passing via an early degree of qualitative description, issues itself with quantitative reviews of the phe­ nomena of curiosity, i. e. , measurements. as well as designing and undertaking the scan, an importal1t activity is the exact assessment and whole exploitation of the information acquired. allow us to record a couple of general difficulties. 1. A learn is made from the load of laboratory animals below the impact of varied medications. After the appliance of drug A to twenty-five animals, a regular raise of five % is saw. Drug B, used on 10 animals, yields a three % raise. Is drug A more desirable? The averages five % and three % provide essentially no resolution to this question, because the reduce worth could have been attributable to a unmarried animal that misplaced weight for a few unrelated cause. One needs to for this reason examine the distribution of person weights and their unfold round the normal price. additionally, one has to make your mind up even if the variety of attempt animals used will permit one to tell apart with a undeniable accuracy among the results of the 2 medications. 2. In experiments on crystal progress it really is necessary to retain precisely the ratios of different parts. From a complete of 500 crystals, a pattern of 20 is chosen and analyzed.

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28 Subroutine GRNBWS displays workstation numbers .. l Subprogram ,WNINIT initializes main program under WINDOWS . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Subprogram WNRGPR registers an application program Subprogram WNRUNP runs registered application program Subprogram WNRDST reads a character string from the command line of the main window . . . . . . . Subprogram WNWRST displays a character string in the main window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580 580 580 580 581 581 584 584 584 585 585 589 601 601 601 602 602 Frequently Used Symbols and Notation x.

5, 2332 P(AB) = 10 . 9 + 10 . 9' P{AC) = P( BC) = 10 . 9 + 10 . 9 ' P{AA) = 10 . 9' 3 5 2 1 5 2552 10 . 9 + 10 . 9 ' 3 P{BB) 3 2 = 10 . 9' 5 4 P(CC) = 10 . 9' For (a) and (b) it holds that P(2 identical coins} = P{AA) + P{BB} + P{CC), P(2 different coins} = P{AB) + P(AC) + P{BC) = 1 - P{2 identical coins) . 3. Random Variables. 1 Random Variables We will now consider not the probability of observing particular events but rather the events themselves and try to find a particularly simple way of classifying them.

The concept of covariance is of considerable importance for the understanding of many of our subsequent problems. From its definition we see that cov(x, y) is positive if values x > appear preferentially together with values y > y. On the other hand, cov(x, y) is negative if in general x > implies y < y. If, finally, the knowledge of the value of x does not give us additional information about the probable position ofy, the covariance vanishes. These cases are illustrated in Fig. 8. 14) rather than the covariance.

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