By Daniela Huber (auth.)
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Additional info for Democracy Promotion and Foreign Policy: Identity and Interests in US, EU and Non-Western Democracies
Second, military invasions usually do not aim at building democracy only. Either democracy promotion 26 Democracy Promotion and Foreign Policy did not constitute a direct reason for participation in a war as, for example, in the often cited case of the entrance of the United States into World War II against Germany and Japan, where democracy promotion came in after the war in utilitarian, not military, form; or democracy promotion was named as one of the reasons besides security or economic goals as in the US invasions in Panama and Iraq; in these cases, however, it is unclear if democracy only served as a rhetorical device or indeed constituted one of the reasons to intervene.
In all, as this short discussion of the actorness question showed, the EU does not only possess sufficient actorness in foreign policy, but can be treated as a state-like actor and rather well compared to the United States and Turkey specifically in the field of democracy promotion. Nonetheless, to prevent conceptual misunderstandings, the evolution of competences of the EU in democracy promotion will be elaborated in more detail in Chapter 7 on EU democracy promotion. 2 What Is Democracy Promotion?
Kenneth Waltz claimed that ‘crusades are frightening because crusaders go to war for righteous causes which they define for themselves and try to impose on others’ (Waltz 2002, 36). Besides, structural realists also regard democracy promotion of ‘second-order normative concern’ and argue that it can surface only if security or vital economic interests are not at stake and when systemic pressures are indeterminate (Hyde-Price 2008, 39). The most comprehensive theorizing on democracy promotion from a structural realist perspective has been set up and tested for the US case by Benni Miller who argues that only under hegemony will democracies promote ideology abroad, pursuing it by offensive means in a highly threatening environment and by defensive means in a benign one (Miller 2010).