By Nauman Khan
This ebook explores the demanding situations and provides most sensible suggestions for designing Through-Silicon Vias (TSVs) for 3D built-in circuits. It describes a singular strategy to mitigate TSV-induced noise, the GND Plug, that's enhanced to others tailored from 2-D planar applied sciences, reminiscent of a bottom flooring airplane and standard substrate contacts. The publication additionally investigates, within the kind of a comparative learn, the effect of TSV dimension and granularity, spacing of C4 connectors, off-chip energy supply community, shared and committed TSVs, and coaxial TSVs at the caliber of strength supply in 3D ICs. The authors supply unique most sensible layout practices for designing three-D energy supply networks. due to the fact TSVs occupy silicon real-estate and effect machine density, this e-book presents 4 iterative algorithms to lessen the variety of TSVs in an influence supply community. in contrast to different present tools, those algorithms will be utilized in early layout levels while in simple terms practical block- point behaviors and a ﬂoorplan can be found. eventually, the authors discover using Carbon Nanotubes for strength grid layout as a futuristic replacement to Copper.
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Extra resources for Designing TSVs for 3D Integrated Circuits
The MEM and ACCL modules utilize a maximum of 20 and 10 W, respectively. The maximum power consumed by the 3-D IC is 70 W. MEM is assumed to generate a current trace similar to that of the L2 Cache; ACCL is assumed to generate a current trace similar to that of the FPU block. We use the regular square TSVs, as described in Sect. 1, for power delivery in the 3-D stack. To calculate the resistance and capacitance of individual TSVs and microconnects, we utilize the electrical characterization approach by Alam et al.
RTSVn ... 1 g1,2 Ron-chip Off-chip power delivery network smaller TSV arrangements connected in parallel between two TSV grid points. For this paper, we assume a TSV diameter of 5 μm. Each location ti is assigned a number of TSVs, ni . We assume that power TSVs supply neighboring devices as shown in Fig. 2. Each device node, gki, j connects the two closest TSV grid locations, ti and t j , and the device node is located on die k. TSVs at locations ti and t j are thus directly connected to gki, j .
The ability to localize noise increases with an increase in GND-plug depth. 40 Peak Transient Noise (V) Fig. 00 25 50 75 GND Plug height (% of substrate height) 100 to localize noise. A shallow GND plug provides only partial shielding; devices farther away from the TSV will not be as thoroughly shielded as with a GND plug that completely extends through the substrate. • The benefit of increasing plug diameter occurs at the expense of increased area. Increasing the plug diameter for deep GND plugs has larger relative impact than using the same diameter for shallow GND plugs.