By Mark Wolraich; et al
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Extra resources for Developmental-behavioral pediatrics : evidence and practice
Maladaptive parenting, school failure). 119 From a clinical perspective, a typological approach is beneﬁcial because professionals who are familiar with typologies can then use this information to guide their evaluations and subsequent recommendations. For example, a history of insecure attachment would prompt a more thorough assessment to elicit information, including early childhood medical history, family environment, parenting behaviors and beliefs, child temperament and behavior problems, and emergent social relationships.
Jonathan’s teachers reported that he appeared withdrawn, played by himself during free play, and had difﬁculty concentrating in the classroom. At home, Jonathan appeared more irritable than usual and would throw frequent temper tantrums. In addition, he had difﬁculty sleeping and appeared to lose interest in eating. After a couple of months, Jonathan’s behavior began to improve. However, these symptoms resurfaced a year later, when Jonathan and his mother moved into their own apartment, which necessitated a change in schools.
U adolescents with mothers who displayed low levels of autonomy in observed interactions were more likely to display internalizing symptoms. Conversely, those with mothers who displayed very high levels of autonomy were more likely to exhibit risky behaviors. , insecure preoccupied attachment orientation). Equiﬁ nality occurs when individuals with the same level of psychopathology achieved such pathological outcomes through different pathways. Evidence for equiﬁ nality has emerged in research. 114 It is worth noting, from an intervention perspective, that the presence of equiﬁ nality suggests that different versions of a given treatment for a given problem may be needed, depending on the pathway by which an individual progressed toward a psychopathological outcome.