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By Marcus Jacobson (auth.)

In our makes an attempt to interrogate Nature concerning the improvement of the anxious procedure, we ask such questions as "How do the nerve cells originate and the way do the proper kinds of cells differentiate at their right positions; how do the neurons hyperlink jointly to shape circuits whose capabilities are correctly coordinated; and the way are the features of nerve cells on the topic of habit, to concept, and to unsleeping­ ness?" these difficulties are intellectually hard, not just simply because fixing them could provide us sensible benefits but additionally simply because whereas they continue to be unsolved they stimulate the mind's eye and problem the intelligence. it's accurately simply because they're tricky and debatable and feature defied whole answer that such difficulties proceed to draw refined minds. the certainty that we've got of neural ontogeny turns out to me to be further from entire wisdom than from overall lack of understanding. still, it offers us a touch increased place from which to survey the vicissitudes of the earlier, to appraise our current figuring out, and to think about ways that our knowl­ aspect may enhance sooner or later. The background of this topic presents a very piquant representation of Arthur Lovejoy's remark that the "adequate checklist of even the confusions of our forebears can help, not just to explain these confu­ sions, yet to engender a salutary doubt even if we're entirely immune from diversified yet both nice confusions.

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100), these are "indifferent cells," which he thought are capable of differentiating either into neurons or into neuroglia. " Such indifferent cells have not been identified histologically. However, this does not rule out their existence, because the "indifference" or multipotentiality refers to their developmental potential and not necessarily to any aspect of their morphology. 6. , 1959), and matrix Gell (S. Fujita, 1963). In this discussion the common precursor cell will be called the neuroepithelial germinal cell, or simply germinal cell, since that term has priority and adequately describes the cell.

Baker and T. E. Schroeder, Dev. Biol. 15:432-450 (1967), copyright Academic Press, Inc. Neural groove Neural tube EMBRYO 0 (Q) MID-DORSAL NEURAL CELLS CI 1 J rrn WJ QY ® (b ern conceptions of neural plate folding when he wrote in 1894: "Suppose we have a sheet of cells, the elements of which are as wide at their bases as they are at the free surface. " It is now safe to conclude that changes in shape of neural epithelial cells during neurulation are due to intracellular microtubules which produce cell elongation and to intracellular microfilaments which produce apical constriction of the neuroectodermal cells.

Whether it can prevent or delay nerve cell differentiation remains to be shown. Jacobson, 1968b) and chick embryo (Kahn, 1973, 1974), and in Mauthner's neuron of Xenopus (VargasLizardi and Lyser, 1974). Therefore, it seemed that the neural retina and Mauthner's neuron might be promising systems in which to use BrdU to inhibit cell differentiation without affecting cell viability. Initial reports suggested. that it might be possible to achieve such a "chemical dissection" of the program of differentiation of retinal ganglion cells in Xenopus (Bergey et al.

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