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This huge creation to concrete deterioration outlines the most important reasons and mechanisms of degradation. 3 phases of overview are coated: research of present situation, prognosis and choice of applicable answer a number of references
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Extra resources for Diagnosis of Deterioration in Concrete Structures - Identification of defects, evaluation and development of remedial action
D. Application via direct inference: It also finds that analogies do not always lead to a direct inference from base to target. They can also play other roles; one of these is a more provocative role in activating an essential schema that has never been applied before to either the target or the base. In the classical theory of analogy, Gentner and Holyoak emphasized the roles that analogies can play as: 1. 1 Some Major Issues in Analogical Reasoning 25 2. An aid to learning via an inductive generalization from the common features seen in a target and one or more analogous cases In contrast, this book discusses evidence from transcripts for the following additional roles: 1.
Once the similarity is deemed valid or sound, useful additional information can sometimes be inferred in the target. 1 Presented vs. Spontaneous Analogies Of the existing psychological studies of analogy, almost all have focused on presented analogies, in which at least part of the analogy is presented to the subject for completion. Here I will focus on spontaneous analogies, where the subject initiates and forms the entire analogy. Roughly, these occur when a subject, in thinking about a target situation A, shifts, without being prompted, to consider a situation B (the base) which differs in some significant way from A, and hopes to apply findings from B to A.
Many of the cases generated in this way turn out to be newly invented, rather than accessed cases; this leads to several implications that differ with the basic theory above. B. Evaluating soundness: In previous theories, mapping connections between discrete symbols in the representations of the target and base is the lion’s share of the work of determining soundness; once the mapping process is complete, soundness is calculated from a weighted scoring system for the soundness of the mapping. The present study suggests that there are other important methods for evaluating the soundness or validity of an analogy besides mapping of discrete symbols, including generating secondary bridging analogies (Chapter 4), finding conserving transformations, or conducting dual imagistic simulations for the base and the target (Chapter 17).