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By Eric Lichtfouse; Didier Robert; Jan Schwarzbauer

From the contents: Analytical Chemistry.- poisonous Metals.- natural Pollutants.- Polycyclic fragrant Compounds.- Pesticides.- eco-friendly Chemistry.- Ecotoxicology

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G. the dissolution behavior of the heavy metals in the soil over different time scales. The supports can be reinserted into the soil after XRF analysis to undergo further reactions. A comparison of the XRF analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopic (AAS) analysis of the same supports has to be performed for each material that is used. The intention of this comparison is to find out whether the XRF results that are obtained using a calibration for powdered metal phases can be used to determine the metal concentration on the supports.

During the heating to 280 ° C : a between room temperature and 210 °C; b between 210 and 280 °C. During the isotherm at 280 °C: c between 0 and 50 min; d between 50 min and 3 h; e between 3 and 6 h. We can see the evolution of the band at 1 950 cm–1 during the thermal treatment controlled rate and pressure up to 500 °C under flowing or static atmospheres. The insitu spectra of the char were recorded in presence of potassium bromide and pure KBr as the background reference. Typical experiments consist in recording an interferogram every 3 min (which is equivalent to every 15 °C when heating rate of 5 °C min–1 is used), so accurate monitoring of the chemical events can be achieved.

1998). Since these materials are heterogeneous in nature and are usually characterized by a strong absorber behavior towards all kinds of radiations, an arsenal of complementary analytical methods is often required to investigate them. These techniques must be considered as complementary, and no attempt will be made in this work to compare the potentialities of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in this domain to those of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Electron Spectroscopy for chemical Analysis (ESCA), and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD).

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