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Does not possess the property of production. 1-3) 1 . 38) 1 . In the application, we must ascertain whether the property, 28 being present in the subject, is really the same property (as probans) we saw in the positive examples to be connected with the probandumf and in the contrary examples to be never connected with the contrary of the probandum, which implies that when the probandum is absent, the probans is absent. Application means that the general rule of the drstanta and the particular fact of the hetu is applied to, literally brought near (upa and verb, root nlE), the subject, sadhya; the latter is compared to the positive examples and found to possess the same property (probans ) or compared to the contrary examples found to be totally different from them.

Paksilasvamin *s commentary on the initial part of this definition is easy to follow. 3) '. 11 Thereupon Paksilasvamin depicts the process of inference itself: lingalinginoh sambaddhayor darsanena lingasmrtir abhisambadhyate. smrtya linqadarsanena capratyakso 1 rtho 'numlyate, 'The recollection of the property is related to [the fact that one] has seen that the property and the propertybearer are connected [with each other]. 4-5)'. If we would substitute, for example, fire for property-bearer and smoke for property, this assertion becomes clear.

Firstly, statements about visible things, statements that might ideally take the form of correct syllogisms; and secondly, statements about invisible objects, statements that are incapable of direct verification. Especially as regards the latter, the truth of the statement is wholly dependent on the trustworthiness of the speaker, whereas the truth of the former kind of statement is verifiable by direct perception and by testing the logical validity if the statement is a syllogism. True statements on invisible things ultimately refer to statements concerning religious beliefs and values that go beyond the ken of the empirical world.

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