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By Bruce Jennings (auth.), Daniel Callahan, Bruce Jennings (eds.)

The social sciences playa number of multifaceted roles within the policymaking approach. So assorted are those roles, certainly, that it really is futile to speak within the singular concerning the use of social technological know-how in policymaking, as though there have been one consistent courting among mounted and reliable entities. in its place, to handle this factor sensibly one needs to speak within the plural approximately makes use of of dif­ ferent modes of social clinical inquiry for other kinds of regulations below numerous situations. every now and then, the effect of social medical study is direct and tangible, and the relationship among the locate­ ings and the coverage is straightforward to determine. In different instances, maybe such a lot, its impression is indirect-one small piece in a bigger mosaic of politics, bargaining, and compromise. sometimes the findings of social clinical stories are explicitly drawn upon by means of policymakers within the formation, implementation, or overview of specific regulations. extra usually, the types and theoretical versions of social technological know-how offer a common historical past orientation in which policymakers concep­ tualize difficulties and body coverage concepts. from time to time, the in­ fluence of social medical paintings is cognitive and informational in nature; in different cases, policymakers use social technological know-how basically for symbolic and political reasons for you to le­ gitimate preestablished ambitions and techniques. still, amid this variety and diversity, troubling basic questions many times arise.

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Insight and Creativity Despite all the philosophical difficulties surrounding itdifficulties that have been made quite clear in recent years by Kuhn, Hesse, and other "postempiricist" philosophers of science-the notion that scientific investigation involves a precise, impersonal method has remained an almost unshakable article of faith. There are at least three reasons why this is the case. First, the existence of such a method permits the replication of experiments by different investigators and hence provides the basis for intersubjective agreement.

It also seems that the time is ripe for just such a development. During the past few years many policy analysts have begun to reassess the record of the major policy strategies of the sixties and early-seventies, a period of unprecedented federal activism and centralization. While these programs were surely not without merit and laudable effect, neither were they without many serious shortcomings. 22 In any event, the outlines of what will probably be the dominant policy strategy in the next decade are already becoming clear: block-grant federal funding, a shift away from the direct provision of social services in favor of various indirect approaches like voucher schemes, and many other similar programs, all of which add up to a movement away from the received vision of welfare-state liberalism in which the federal government is the guarantor of individual entitlements and the enforcer of certain uniform standards and universal principles of social justice and equality of opportunity.

BELLAH 0 Ford Professor of Sociology and Comparative Studies and Chairman, Department of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720. 37 38 CHAPTER 2 in the National Science Foundation budget for the social sciences. In that letter he says, "Again, the case has to be made for the importance and usefulness of support for the social sciences. " Perhaps the goals of an administration that has embarked on programs profoundly different from any administration since 1932-programs that will have extraordinarily broad political, ethical, and human consequences-are indeed "informed by" social science.

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