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By James Millward

Eurasian Crossroads is the 1st entire background of Xinjiang, the immense important Eurasian sector bordering India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Mongolia. Forming one-sixth of the People's Republic of China (PRC), Xinjiang stands on the crossroads among China, India, the Mediterranean, and Russia and has, because the Bronze Age, performed a pivotal position within the social, cultural, and political improvement of Asia and the realm. Xinjiang used to be the hub of the Silk highway and the conduit wherein Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam entered China. It was once additionally the purpose at which the chinese language, Turkic, Tibetan, and Mongolian empires communicated and struggled with each other. Xinjiang's inhabitants includes Kazakhs, Kirghiz, and Uighurs, all Turkic Muslim peoples, in addition to Han chinese language, and competing chinese language and Turkic nationalist visions proceed to threaten the region's political and fiscal balance. along with separatist issues, Xinjiang's strength assets, strategic place, and speedy improvement have received it foreign consciousness in fresh decades.Drawing on fundamental assets in numerous Asian and eu languages, James Millward offers an intensive examine of Xinjiang's heritage and folks from antiquity to the current and takes a balanced examine the location of Turkic Muslims in the PRC this present day. whereas providing clean fabric and views for experts, this enticing survey of Xinjiang's wealthy environmental, cultural, and ethno-political background can be written for tourists, scholars, and a person desirous to find out about this very important connector among East and West.

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Extra resources for Eurasian Crossroads: A History of Xinjiang

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TANG, TURKS AND TIBET During what I have called the classical period the rivalry between powerful states in north China and Mongolia ultimately spread to Xinjiang. This time, however, other surrounding powers joined in the struggle for control and influence in the Tarim Basin. From the mid-fourth century CE a new nomad confederation, the Ruanruan, arose in Mongolia from the ruins of the vast Xiongnu empire, eventually occupying Zungharia and collecting heavy tributes from the oases cities south of theTianshan.

Tang thus abutted the frontiers of the expanding Arab empire. Cartographers tend to choose this moment of the Tangs greatest extent to depict historical maps of the Tang,54 but five years later, by 662, the western Central Asian regions nominally under Tang protectorates and prefectures were in rebellion, and after only a few years the Western Turks succeeded in overthrowing their puppet khans and restoring their independence throughout their former territories. 56 The Tang position in southern Xinjiang came under threat from a different quarter: the Tibetans, at the time an expansive force in Central Asian affairs.

40 Chinese links with the Tarim Basin were attenuated but not cut off after the fall of the Han. The Chinese annals register occasional diplomatic visits by emissaries both from Xinjiang city-states and further west. Twice in this period (324 and 382 CE), rulers in the Gansu region dispatched armies to subdue Karashahr (Qarashahr, Yanqi) and Kucha (Qiuci, Qucha) and awe the other petty principalities of theTurfan and Tarim Basins into pledging allegiance and sending tribute. The general in charge of the second invasion, Lii Guang, needed 20,000 camels to bring his plunder back when he returned east two years later.

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