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It can be seen that almost a third—20 out of 64 mulattoes—of the F2 generation will carry three pigment genes and will accordingly have about the same skin color as the mulattoes of the FI generation. Almost a half—30 out of 30 11 individuals •— ISJ 00 *. 7. Inheritance of the skin color in the white X Negro cross, on the assumption that the color difference is due to three pairs of pigment genes which exhibit no dominance. The heights of the bars in the diagram show the per- centages among the second generation hybrids of individuals with no, with one, two, three, four, five, and six color-producing genes.

Owing to the recombina- tion of genes he obtained in the F2 generation of hybrids not two but four varieties: with (1) yellow smooth seeds; (2) yellow wrinkled seeds; (3) green smooth seeds; and (4) green wrinkled seeds. Crossing, hybridization, evidently may lead to production of new varieties, which is important in the breeding of agricultural crops and animals. Suppose that a variety of wheat is valuable because it is genetically resistant to frost but has the drawback of being suscepti- ble to rust fungi.

Accordingly, no re- combination of linked genes takes place in the offspring of hybrid Drosophila males. Morgan's hypothesis was amply confirmed and developed by Bridges, Muller, Sturtevant, and others. Numerous experiments were carried out in which the recombination of linked genes was studied in hybrids of Drosophila and in other organisms. Sturtevant found a regularity which holds strictly for rather closely linked genes: namely, if the frequency of recombination between genes A and B is x, and between B and C is y, then the recombination between A and C is either x + y or x — y.

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