By Derek A. Roff
The impetus for this e-book arose out of my past booklet, The Evolution of existence Histories (Roff, 1992). In that publication I awarded a unmarried bankruptcy on quanti tative genetic conception. despite the fact that, because the ebook was once involved in the evolution of lifestyles histories and characteristics attached to this, the presence of quantitative genetic edition used to be an underlying subject matter all through. a lot of the point of interest used to be put on optimality conception, for it truly is this technique that has confirmed to be tremendous winning within the research of existence background version. yet quantitative genetics can't be ig nored, simply because there are a few questions for which optimality methods are beside the point; for instance, even supposing optimality modeling can tackle the ques tion of the upkeep of phenotypic edition, it can't say something approximately genetic version, on which extra evolution basically relies. the current ebook is, hence, a common extension of the 1st. i've got approached the matter no longer from the perspective of an animal or plant breeder yet from that of 1 drawn to figuring out the evolution of quantitative characteristics in wild populations. the topic is big with a substantial physique of thought: I regularly current the assumptions underlying the research and the consequences, giving the appropriate references for these attracted to the intervening arithmetic. My curiosity is in what quantitative genetics tells me approximately evolutionary approaches; for this reason, i've got focused on parts of study so much proper to box studies.
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Additional resources for Evolutionary Quantitative Genetics
Separate heritabilities can be estimated for each sex using sons on sires and daughters on dams. Heritabilities estimated from the regressions of sons on dams and daughters on sires must be corrected to take into account the different variances: For the former, h2 = b(V~/Vs)1I2, where b is the slope of the regression and the Vs are the respective phenotypic variances. As described in the following section, the standard error is considerably inflated when only a single parent is used; it is, therefore, worthwhile to search for a transformation that will remove the differences in variance.
Because the epistatic effects are effectively distributed among the additive and dominance components, detection of epistatic interactions is in practise very difficult (Barker, 1979). 2 The Infinitesimal Model Epistatic effects greatly complicate quantitative genetic theory and, hence, they are generally assumed to be absent. As shown above, even if present, their contribution may be primarily through the additive component. 3 Additive genetic variance (solid line) and heritability (dashed line) as functions of allele frequency p when there are both additive and dominance effects.
Furthermore, the bias was due to overestimates of both additive and dominance effects, the latter being simulated as zero! 6). 7). Further, plotting the percentage phenotypic variance accounted for versus number of QTLs using either independent traits from a single study or the same trait from different studies suggests that approximately 10-20 QTLs account for the vast majority of the phenotypic variance (Fig. 8). Thus, taken at face value, these analyses indicate that relatively few loci are segregating for quantitative traits.