By A. S. (translated by E. Vilim) Yakovlev
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Girls engineers were within the public limelight for many years, but we now have unusually little traditionally grounded figuring out of the styles of employment and schooling of ladies during this box. so much reports are both coverage papers or constrained to statistical analyses. additionally, the scant historic study thus far on hand emphasizes the person, unmarried and special personality of these ladies operating in engineering, frequently utilizing anecdotal facts yet ignoring greater concerns just like the styles of the labour industry and academic associations.
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Considerably up to date with revisions to just about all 200-plus information, this moment variation of Architect's instruction manual of development Detailing presents architects, engineers, inside designers, contractors, and different development execs with the entire universal development info, fabrics info, and detailing innovations used through the undefined.
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Additional info for Fifty Years of Soviet Aircraft Construction
The intention was t o reconstruct the a e r o d r o m e s successively so that not all of t h e m would be out of action at the s a m e time. The "History of the Great Patriotic W a r " (Istoriya Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny) s t a t e s , however, that "in spring 1941 the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, which was charged with the construction work, did not consider the situation and began construction simultaneously on most of the a e r o d r o m e s in the b o r d e r d i s t r i c t s .
Emphasis was placed on cheap m a t e r i a l s in ample supply; this proved to be best under conditions of m a s s production. Its justlfication became apparent during the war when the enemy occupied Zaporozhe and Volkhov, where the aluminum plants were located, thus stopping almost completely the production of aluminum for some time. When it was possibIe, still during the war, to r e s u m e production of aluminum in the Urals, duralumin was used m o r e widely, including on fighters, e. , the wooden s p a r s were replaced by metal ones; this made it possible to reduce the weight of the s t r u c t u r e and to i n c r e a s e the space available for fuel.
P r o g r e s s in a i r c r a f t construction is related t o the adoption of new configurations and design f e a t u r e s would be unthinkable without the pioneering efforts of material-strength specialists. Whereas in the e a r l y s t a g e s of development of Soviet aviation calculations and s t r e s s analyses w e r e c a r r i e d out according t o primitive standards (from today's point of view) and w e r e checked only by elementary s t a t i c t e s t s , l a t e r investigations of aeroelasticity w e r e added to s t a t i c s t r e s s analysis, with aerothermoelasticity, the theory of thin-walled s t r u c t u r e s and s h e l l s following.