By Jörg Schweinitz
Since the early days of movie, critics and theorists have contested the worth of formulation, cliché, traditional imagery, and habitual narrative styles of decreased complexity in cinema. no matter if it is the high-noon showdown or the last-minute rescue, a lonely lady status within the window or enthusiasts asserting so long within the rain, many movies depend upon scenes of stereotype, and audiences have come to count on them. Outlining a finished idea of movie stereotype, a tool as functionally very important because it is problematical to a film's narrative, Jörg Schweinitz constructs a desirable notwithstanding missed severe historical past from the Twenties to today.
Drawing on theories of stereotype in linguistics, literary research, paintings historical past, and psychology, Schweinitz identifies the foremost features of movie stereotype and articulates the positions of theorists according to the demanding situations posed by means of stereotype. He experiences the writing of Susan Sontag, Roland Barthes, Theodor W. Adorno, Rudolf Arnheim, Robert Musil, Béla Balázs, Hugo Münsterberg, and Edgar Morin, and he revives the paintings of less-prominent writers, comparable to René Fülöp-Miller and Gilbert Cohen-Séat, tracing the evolution of the discourse right into a postmodern party of the equipment. via specific readings of particular motion pictures, Schweinitz additionally maps the improvement of versions for adapting and reflecting stereotype, from early irony (Alexander Granowski) and unsleeping rejection (Robert Rossellini) to severe deconstruction (Robert Altman within the Nineteen Seventies) and celebratory transfiguration (Sergio Leone and the Coen brothers). Altogether a provocative spectacle, Schweinitz's heritage finds the position of movie stereotype in shaping strategies of communique and popularity, in addition to its functionality in transforming into media competence in audiences past cinema.
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Additional resources for Film and Stereotype: A Challenge for Cinema and Theory
Indd 16 12/7/10 11:04 AM The Stereotype in Psychology and the Humanities stylistic concerns, and in this context it often dominates thinking about stereotypes. As formulaic, readymade units, stereotypes have naturally been criticized as banal and unoriginal. These aesthetic objections will be elaborated further on. ”92 Riffaterre, however, takes pains to present a more nuanced view. ”94 In addition, a differentiation—of consequence for stylistic critique or aesthetic judgments—must be made between two distinct functions of stereotyped phrases in literary texts.
They do so with intentions similar to those of Lotman and Amossy, namely to describe conventionally fixed and recurrent structural patterns of representation. Naturally they are concerned with pictorial representation. Given the visual nature of film, a look at their ideas will conclude this overview. indd 21 12/7/10 11:04 AM st e r e ot y pe theo ry In the field of linguistic and textual analysis, the stereotype is often coupled with the term “formula,” and Hauser also uses the word “stereotype” to identify formulas—“formal principles”122 (stehende Formeln) of visualization that have developed in the context of the fine arts (though not in isolation from other cultural discourses).
The stereotype has the logical form of a judgment, which ascribes or denies certain properties (traits or forms of behavior) to a set of persons in an (logically) unwarrantably simplifying and generalizing way, with an emotionally evaluative tendency. 70 In Quasthoff ’s work, stereotypes are no longer treated as the actual formulaic notions or judgments applied to groups but as verbal expressions of these socially standardized notions. However, for her this does not affect the obvious grounding of the term in social psychology.