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By E. J. Post

High-level, particular therapy of the primary of basic covariance as utilized to electromagnetics examines the normal invariance of the Maxwell equations, basic houses of the medium, nonuniformity, anisotropy and basic coordinates in three-space, reciprocity and nonreciprocity, and matter-free house with a gravitational box. 1962 edition.

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3). Raychaudhuri and Yu pointed out a difference between fcc and hexagonal crystals: in the former, dislocations along <111> (the NW axis) are not stable (according to Frank’s criterion [HIR 82]) so that stress relief should occur first via loops, whereas in the latter, dislocations along c (with in-plane BVs along a or equivalent directions) are possible. Moreover, the calculations of these authors indicate that the critical dimensions relative to these axial dislocations are always lower than those relative to the loops so that they should appear first in WZ crystals.

Copyright 2010 Optical Society of America). zip Another benefit of NWs is the possibility of decoupling light absorption from carrier collection. In a planar solar cell structure, light absorption and carrier transport take place along the same material path. For most semiconductor PV materials, the light absorption length (~ 1/α > 1 μm, α being the material absorption coefficient) is usually longer than the minority carrier diffusion length, and a compromise has to be found for the material thickness.

R and H may be measured from the center toward the vertical edge (as shown) or toward the facet center. Two a and m prismatic planes and a pyramidal plane are marked by dotted outlines. Axial dislocation and basal loop with BVs as in (b). Various coordinates systems are indicated: orthonormal xyz axes with z along NW axis, cylindrical coordinates for NWs with circular section and unit cell axes for WZ structure. 3. e. 1). Foremost among these are the NW sidewalls. The interfaces are usually close to these sidewalls (core-shell structure) and possibly intersect them (axial heterostructure without shell).

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