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By David Bell

Examines Frege's concept of judgement, in keeping with which a judgement is, paradigmatically, the statement specific item falls less than a given idea. through the ebook the purpose is to either country Frege's perspectives sincerely and concisely, and to protect, alter or reject those the place applicable.

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Wiener (1948) focused on the role of information in the control of both mechanical and biological systems. His first order cybernetics united thermodynamics in Boltzmann’s probability interpretation with the ideas contained in Shannon’s work. Thermodynamic entropy is measured in Joules/Kelvins. In contradistinction to Shannon’s theory of information, Wiener reversed his definition of information from entropy to neg-entropy, from disorder to organization, which Schr¨odinger integrated into his theory of life.

Thus, information has to be connected to embodied meaningful language in a culture or to the physical world of material objectivity. e. a “structured piece of the world”, information in Shannon’s theory is the same as (positive) entropy. From this angle at least, Shannon’s “information” is the opposite of Wiener’s “information”. 26 S. 1 The Thermodynamic-Cybernetic Type of Theory of Information This type of theory is most prominently associated with the work of Norbert Wiener (1948) and Erwin Schr¨odinger (1967).

One needs to have empirical reference29 in order to produce real information. 231, 1910). In other words, analytical statements lack informativity. , the greater the empirical reference that it has), the more informative it is. Quantity is a measure of the extension of a symbol. ” (W1: 187). Thus, the extension of the symbol fish is larger than the one of sharks since fish is applicable to more animals than Sharks. Quality, on the other hand, is dependent on the intension of a symbol, which is the number of characters attributed to a term.

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