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Carbohydrates influence the rheological properties of most foods of plant origin. The involvement of carbohy­ drates in the "browning" reaction may either improve or impair consumer accep­ tance and the nutritional value of many foods. 1 Physical and Chemical Properties of Common Starches Solubility at 95°C (%) Swelling power (at 95°C) — — 24 64 Granule size (μηι) Amylose Range Average Barley 2-35° 20 22 Corn Regular Waxy 5-25* 5-25 15 15 26 ~1 — 15 33 up to 80 22 5 — Starch Gelatinization range (°C) Taste 56-62 Cereal Low Round, elliptical, lenticular 25 23 62-80 63-74 Cereal Cereal Low Low 6 1000 12 82 85-87 56-69 Cereal Tuber Low Slight 19 97 — — — 61-80 57-70 60-74 Cereal Cereal Pith Low Low Low Round, polygonal Round, oval indentations Round Egglike, oyster indentations Polygonal clusters Elliptical, lenticular Egglike, some truncate forms Round, polygonal Round-oval, truncated on side Round, elliptical, lenticular Polygonal, compound High amylose Potato 15-100 Rice Rye Sago 3-8 2-35^ 20-60 — 25 17 23 27 Sorghum Tapioca (cassava) 5-25<" 5-35 15 20 26 17 22 71 22 48 68-78 52-64 Cereal Root Low Fruity Wheat 2-35^ 15 25 21 41 53-72 Cereal Low aOats 2-10 — 27 — 56-62 Cereal Low c — L a r g e starch granules above 5; small starch granules below 5.

Obviously, the type of Brabender curve is not specific for and characteristic of any particular starch, but instead depends on the extent of swelling of the granules under the conditions of cooking employed. As a further illustration, the high content (55%) of the linear fraction in highamylose corn starch rigidifies the micellar network and greatly restricts granule swelling (swelling power = 8 at 95°C). 17). Because the granules V. Food Applications: Functions of Starch in Foods 47 are so strongly bonded internally, the paste shows little or no breakdown during cooking at 95°C in water.

A. Cole and R. A. ), pp. 3 2 1 - 3 3 8 . Butterworth, London. Hardman, T. M. ) (1988). " Elsevier Applied Science, London. , and Robinson, A. D. (1954). Moisture and its measurement. In "Storage of Cereal Grains and Their Products" (J. A. Anderson and A. W. , Chapter 1, pp. 1 4 5 , Am. Assoc. , St. Paul, Minnesota. Jeffrey, A. B . (1983). Principles of water binding applied to meat technology. J. Sci. Food Agric. 34, 1020-1021. Katz, Ε. , and Labuza, T. P. (1981). Effect of water activity on the sensory crispness and mechanical deformation of snack food products.

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