By Austin Burt
In evolution, such a lot genes live on and unfold inside populations simply because they raise the power in their hosts (or their shut kin) to outlive and reproduce. yet a few genes unfold regardless of being damaging to the host organism—by distorting their very own transmission to the subsequent new release, or via altering how the host behaves towards kinfolk. in this case, assorted genes in one organism could have diametrically adversarial pursuits and diversifications. overlaying all species from yeast to people, Genes in clash is the 1st booklet to inform the tale of egocentric genetic parts, these always showing stretches of DNA that act narrowly to develop their very own replication on the price of the bigger organism. As Austin Burt and Robert Trivers convey, those egocentric genes are a common function of existence with pervasive results, together with quite a few counter-adaptations. Their unfold has created an entire global of socio-genetic interactions inside of contributors, often thoroughly hidden from sight. Genes in clash introduces the topic of egocentric genetic parts in all its elements, from molecular and genetic to behavioral and evolutionary. Burt and Trivers supply us entry for the 1st time to an important region of research—now constructing at an explosive rate—that is cohering as a unitary complete, with its personal common sense and interconnected questions, an issue guaranteed to be of tolerating value to our knowing of genetics and evolution. (20060428)
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Extra info for Genes in Conflict: The Biology of Selfish Genetic Elements
Transmission through females is about 15% due to loss of the supernumerary at meiosis (Cameron and Moav 1957). 1 (continued) Triticum Ki In T. aestivum vulgare var. Chinese Spring × var. Timstein hybrids, pollen containing the Ki Timstein allele are killed and Ki Chinese Spring is transmitted to >90% of progeny. Transmission is normal through ovules. Some other strains are neutral (Loegering and Sears 1963; see also Nyquist 1962). Aegilops Cuckoo chromosomes, gametocidal chromosomes In Triticum aestivum plants with particular chromosomes from particular Aegilops species, either as substitutions or as additions (= supernumeraries), pollen and ovules not containing the Aegilops chromosome are killed by many chromosome breaks and the Aegilops chromosome is transmitted to 98– 100% of progeny through both pollen and ovules.
Musculus, domesticus, castaneus, and bactrianus) at frequencies of about 5% (Lyon 1991, Ardlie and Silver 1996, 1998). Drosophila Segregation Distorter In SD/+ heterozygous males, + sperm are incapacitated and SD sperm can fertilize 95–99% of eggs. Transmission is normal in females. SD/SD homozygotes may or may not be viable and fertile. Found in D. melanogaster at frequencies of 1–5% (Temin et al. 1991). Spore killers In Sk/+ heterozygous asci, + ascospores are killed and only Sk ascospores are viable.
Bruck 1957, Petras 1967, Durand et al. 1997). t is a simple system to model because resistant alleles are not a significant fraction of the population, and 36 Autosomal Killers so one need consider only 2 alleles, killer and sensitive. Surveys of natural populations show that the t complex is patchily distributed, with an average frequency in one large survey of about 5%, ranging (in samples larger than 20 individuals) from 0–71% (Ardlie and Silver 1998). While the most extensive data are for M.