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Extra resources for Geotechnical aspects of underground construction in soft ground: proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground, Roma, Italy, 17-19 May, 2011

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Four possible causes including the effects of tunnel construction, secondary compression of soft clay, cyclic loading due to running trains, and groundwater pumping for the observed large tunnel settlements at some stations are investigated based on desk study, results of static and cyclic laboratory tests and coupled consolidation finite element analyses. The likely mechanism for the observed long-term tunnel settlement is identified and discussed. 1 INTRODUCTION 1 3 7 Shanghai is the largest financial centre in China with a population of about 23 millions.

Convergence measured at voussoir ring 37: (a) time vs horizontal convergence diagram, (b) time vs deformation speed diagram. by means of the SPAC geophysical technique, the use of a presiometer, phicometer, triple barrel samplers, etc. Design: The design strategy has been congruous with what has been observed during the development of the construction work, with convergences similar to what was indicated at the design stage, and observing the integrity of the dowel rings. In the section of clayey soils and coverage between 28 m and 40 m, it was observed that the value of flexion rigidity EI used to consider the joints between dowels and dowel rings varies between 10% and 15%.

Other aspects to take into account are the pressure applied on the excavation face and be careful to have a uniform injection around the tunnel. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank to the organizing committee for the invitation to this symposium, especially to Professor Richard Kastner and Professor Stefano Aversa. A recognition as well to the working team who dedicate most of their time to the construction of this important project. This article is a contribution of technical committee TC-214.

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