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By D. Nachmansohn

The Leo Baeck Institute, to whose past due president this booklet is devoted, has 3 branches, situated in Jerusalem, London, and big apple. Its leader objective is the gathering of records describing the heritage of Jews in German-speaking nations, the manifold elements of the organization of the 2 ethnic teams, over a interval of approximately a hundred and fifty years; that's, from the time of the Enlightenment till the increase to strength of the Nazi regime. Twenty-three 12 months Books (1956-1978) to date and plenty of extra vol­ umes approximately detailed fields were released by means of the institute. they provide a magnificent documentation of the function Jews performed in Germany, a few of their nice achievements, the problems they encountered of their fight for equivalent rights, in addition to its gradual yet probably luck­ ful development. A wealth of attention-grabbing fabric describes the mutual stimu­ lation of the artistic forces of the 2 ethnic teams in a superb number of fields-literature, tune, the appearing arts, philosophy, humanities, the shaping of public opinion, financial system, trade, and undefined. because the destruction of the second one Temple via the Romans, there were just a couple of classes in which Jews performed such an eminent function within the background in their host kingdom. As used to be forcefully emphasised by means of Gerson D.

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The continuous fight for survival in the Diaspora over the centuries forced them to use their mental abilities to obtain high quality in whatever they did. Another important element may have been genetic endowment, favored by a selective process. There was a long tradition of cultured families with highly talented and scholarly sons trying to find equally gifted marriage partners for these sons. A few figures may be given to illustrate the participation of Jews in the growth of German universities.

In the era before the Kaiserreich, Munich was actually ahead of Berlin in both physics and chemistry (see p. 30). Georg Simon Ohm (17871854) became professor of physics in Munich in 1849. He is well known for his work on electricity and especially for his formulation of the laws on the relationships between resistance, strength of current, and potential difference. Some of his work still forms part of textbook physics. He received the Copley Medal of the Royal Society in 1841, at that time about the equivalent of the Nobel Prize today.

In 1935 he arranged a memorial celebration for Fritz Haber (see IV, A) as president of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, a position Planck held from 1930, after the death of Adolf von Harnack, until 1935. The minister of education, Rust, did not permit university professors to participate. Karl-Friedrich Bonhoeffer, a pupil of Haber, was one of those prevented from participating. Planck arranged the celebration against all obstacles and Otto Hahn (see IV, A) presented the memorial lecture prepared by Bonhoeffer.

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