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By Ronald B. Corley

A consultant to equipment within the Biomedical Sciences provides a simple description of universal tools utilized in learn. this isn't meant to be a equipment booklet. quite, it's meant to be a booklet that outlines the aim of the tools defined, their obstacles and supply replacement techniques as applicable. millions of tools were built within the numerous biomedical disciplines and people coated during this e-book signify the fundamental, crucial and most generally used equipment in different assorted disciplines.

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Guide to Methods in the Biomedical Sciences

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The development of many new technologies was required to achieve these breakthroughs, and many of the techniques that were invented for these discoveries remain in use today. Some of these were so instrumental in their applicability to solve biological problems that they also garnered Nobel Prizes for their inventors (Table 2). The following are brief descriptions of some of the common methods used to manipulate nucleic acids, especially DNA. B. Basic methods for nucleic acid analysis Gels and gradients for separation of nucleic acids The size of a piece of DNA, usually produced as the result of restriction digestion (see below) can be determined by separation on gradients or gels.

It can be a chemical, an antibody, a protein, or a fragment of DNA. For identifying nucleic acids on membranes, DNA probes are often used. These probes are labeled by one of several methods with either a radioactive isotope, a dye or fluorescent compound, or an enzyme. The probes are hybridized (annealed) to nucleic acids on the membrane. If a complementary nucleic acid is present, the probe anneals, and its presence can be detected by a method suited to the detection of the probe, depending on the labeling method.

Consequently, when the RNA template terminates, extension will end. The length of the cDNA synthesized identifies the length from the primer to the end of the RNA, and the amount of product synthesized is a direct reflection of the abundance of the RNA. Other methods to quantitate RNA use modifications of the polymerase chain reaction, and are described in Chapter 3. Reverse transcriptase (RNA-dependent DNA polymerase) Reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme isolated from retroviruses (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, or HIV, is one example of a retrovirus).

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