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By T. A. Sarma

This guide acquaints readers with the intriguing advancements in quite a few parts of cyanobacterial study within the backdrop of the e-book of whole genome series of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. pressure PCC 6803 in 1996. It starts off with a precis of the present wisdom at the taxonomy, phylogeny and evolution of cyanobacteria by way of the sequenced genomes, differentiation of akinetes and heterocyst. The e-book considers mechanisms of mobile activities (gliding, swimming and twitching motions) exhibited by way of a number of cyanobacteria on the way to comply with their environmental niches and the operation of the circadian rhythms. It covers cyanobacterial symbiosis, cyanophages and cyanobacterial pollutants, through a dialogue on tension responses (salinity, temperature, desiccation and oxidation). A finished account at the advancements in these kinds of spheres has been offered in a lucid variety with the necessary historical past info, molecular recommendations hired and types proposed. This guide constitutes the 1st such booklet written through a unmarried writer at a degree and intensity for graduate and learn scholars in botany and microbiology.

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Accordingly, this necessitates a taxonomic revision of these two genera. Gugger and Hoffmann (2004) presented evidences for polyphyletic nature of true branching cyanobacteria (belonging to subsection V of cyanobacteria of Bergey’s Manual and order Stigonematales). Strains belonging to the genera Fischerella (Born. 1895 (F. muscicola Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Evolution 33 PCC 7414, Fischerella sp. 1711 and Fischerella sp. SAG 2027) Hapalosiphon Näg. in Kütz. 1886 (Hapalosiphon sp. 804-1), Mastigocladopsis Iyeng.

Coli σ70 type DNA-dependent RNA polymerase) gene sequences that revealed 5 subgroups of cyanobacteria. They designed PCR primers for gyrB, rpoC1 and rpoD1 genes by using consensus amino acid sequences registered in GenBank. Phylogenetic relationships drawn based on gyrB, rpoC1 and rpoD1 sequences supported 16S rRNA gene sequence based phylogeny. Phylogenetic trees Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Evolution 29 based on sequences of these genes and the combined amino acid sequences deduced from rpoC1 and rpoD1 suggested that LGT of rRNA might be suspected in case of Synechocystis sp.

The Synechocystis/Pleurocapsa/Microcystis sequence group identified by Turner et al. (1999) does not derive much support from the work of Tomitani et al. (2006), although Prochloron and Pleurocapsalean cyanobacteria formed a cluster. Turner et al. (2001) compared phylogeny, based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing by using ML method, of strains of nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacteria. Three independent lines of descent have been identified without any correlation between aerobic versus anaerobic nitrogen-fixing activity.

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