By Abel Lajtha, Guido Tettamanti, Gianfrancesco Goracci
Biochemistry and molecular biology of neural lipids: common Aspects.- Advances in lipid analysis/lipidomics.- Metabolism and enzymology of Glycerolipids.- Metabolism and enzymology of Sphingolipids.- Metabolism and enzymology of ldl cholesterol and steroids.- In vivo metabolic studies.- Lipid metabolism in mind improvement and aging.- mobile and Subcellular localization of neural lipids.- Nuclear lipids and their signaling functions.- Mitochondrial lipids.- Synaptic Junctions.- Lipid rafts.- Myelin.- progress Cones.- services of Neural Lipids.- Lipid mediators:general aspects.- Choline and ethanolamine phosphoglycerides.- Phosophoinositides.- Sphingoinds/Sphingomyelin.- The endocannabinoids procedure and its manifold critical action.- Lipid mediators and modulators of neural functions.- Phosphoinostides.- Lysophosphatidate and lysolipids.- polyunsaturated fatty acids and bioactive derivatives.- Platelet-activating factor.- Anandamide and acylethanolamides.- 2 arachidonylglycerol.- Sphingoids.- Sulfatides.- Gangliosides.- Steroids.- Protein lipid anchors.- vitamin, mind lipids and mind functions.- Polyunsaturated fatty acids.- Choline.- Alcohol.- Neural lipids in dysfunctions and diseases.- Phospholipase A2 and neurodegeneration.- Oxidative pressure and lipid peroxydation.- Anoxia, ischemia and reperfusion.- Lipids in Altzheimers ailment brain.- Parkinsons disease.- a number of sclerosis.- ALS.- Peroxisomal disorders.- Sphingolipid-inherited ailments of the CNS.- Tumors.- knock out animal versions.
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Extra resources for Handbook of Neurochemistry and Molecular Neurobiology: Neural Lipids
1997, 2000b). , 2000b; Banno, 2002; Fukami, 2002; Jenkins and Frohman, 2005). This initiates a complex intracellular signaling cascade, as evidenced by the generation of various lipid second messengers (> Table 2-3). This complexity is further enhanced by the fact that the synthesis of one messenger, depending on the time interval following receptor activation, involves different glycerophospholipid substrates and metabolic pathways. 2 PLA2, PLC, and PLD-Generated Second Messengers Choline and ethanolamine glycerophospholipids are reservoirs of precursors for the generation of many bioactive mediators.
PAF synthesis takes place either via the de novo pathway, which involves the transfer of phosphocholine from CDP–choline to 1-O-alkyl 2-acetyl-sn-glycerol, or via the remodeling pathway. In this pathway, 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, present in membranes, is hydrolyzed by a phospholipase A2 generating 1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lyso-PAF), which is then acetylated to PAF by an acetyltransferase. Another pathway for the synthesis of PAF is the oxidative fragmentation of choline glycerophospholipids (Farooqui and Horrocks, 2004b).
Because of the greater propensity of ethanolamine plasmalogens to undergo lamellar to hexagonal phase transition, vesicles containing ethanolamine plasmalogens undergo fusion six times more rapidly than vesicles containing PtdEtn. This suggests that ethanolamine plasmalogen may be involved in membrane fusion, a process that occurs during synaptic transmission, hormone release, and membrane trafficking (Farooqui and Horrocks, 2001). 4 Choline and Ethanolamine Glycerophospholipids in Apoptotic Cell Death Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death, which is characterized morphologically by nuclear condensation, cell shrinkage, and bleb formation (Sastry and Rao, 2000).